World War II: The American Experience HIS120 Date World War II: The American Experience It is no known secret that America attempted to reframe from becoming a part of what was projected as being a major war which started with the European culture. Historians believe that the second war was a contribution of the Great Depression which caused for America to seize from their investments in Europe. This caused for a struggle of power in Europe which provide an opportunity for Hitler and Stalin to obtain control over Europe. However receiving control over Britain would become a challenge.
The prime minister at that time knew in order to survive he would need an alliance; the United States. With Germany, Italy, and Japan seizing majority of Europe, President Roosevelt agreed to support Britain in the war in order to promote the “Four Freedoms: freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom for want, and freedom for fear” (Schultz, 2012). With the booming of Pearl Harbor on December 7, President Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war. Once war was declared and with Hitler also declaring war on the United States; this became the beginning of World War II.
North African Campaign Figure 1. Allied Operations in World War II, 1942-1945 American troops entered into North Africa in late 1943. The North African Campaign, better known as the Desert War, took place in North African desert which surrounded those areas of Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and the Western Sahara (United States History, 2012). After the Axis (name given for the Germane, Italian, and Japanese) were defected in France, Northern Africa became the focus of conquering.
It is stated that the North African Campaign was fought for not only one reason but for two reasons. The Suez Canal was the first objective to gain control over for the reason that the Suez Canal will be the source of controlling the Middle East. The second objective for the North African Campaign was the Middle East oil supply and resources. Egypt was a main focus due to the location in which was at the center of the Eastern Mediterranean, Abyssinia, and the Middle East (United States History, 2012). Operation torch was lead by General Bernard Montgomery.
During operation torch, British troops were in Egypt fighting the Germany’s while American troops launched an invasion of French North Africa (United States History, 2012). The objective for operation torch was to gain control of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia which were all under the French dictatorship. By having control, the Allies (Britain, Soviet Union, and the United States) wanted to push the Axis out of Africa. The Allies were successful. “On May 12, 1943, the last organized Axis army force in Africa surrendered.
The Allies had killed, wounded, or captured about 350,000 Axis soldiers, and had suffered about 70,000 casualties. After the victory in the North African Campaign, the stage was set for the Italian Campaign to begin” (United States History, 2012). Italian Campaign Figure 2. The Pacific and Adjacent Theaters, 1942-1945 At the Casablanca Conference held in Casablanca, Morocco in January 1943; the decision was made to invade Italy. The Allies had their first war conference to discuss the invasion. This launched the Italian Campaign which placed Allied soldiers on the mainland in Europe.
The Italian Campaign consisted of five objectives: to “capitalize on the collapse of Italian resistance, make immediate use of ready Allied strength, engage German forces that might otherwise be used in Russia and northern France, secure airfields from which to intensify the bombing of Germany and the Balkans, and gain complete control of the Mediterranean” (United States History, 2012). D-Day; Normandy landings was the Operation Husky. During this operation, Allies landed on the beaches while leading the Germans to thinking that they would attack Sardinia and Corsica.
Due to the bombing in Rome, the head of the government king Mussolini was forced to resign from his position. At that time, the Italians wanted to withdraw from the war with Japan and Russia. Operation Husky wanted to completely eliminate Italy from the war. By the end of the Italian Campaign, the war against Germany reallocated to France. “In the spring of 1945 Allied forces penetrated the final German defensive line to enter the fertile plains of the Po River Valley. On May 2, the Germans in Italy surrendered” (United States History, 2012).
Japanese American, Infantry men of the 442nd Regiment, runs for cover as a German artillery shell is about to land outside the building. Levine, Italy. April 4, 1945. Normandy Campaign The objectives of the Allies were during the invasion of Normandy was eliminate all of the Germans capabilities of trying to organize a counterattack during the Allies amphibious assault. The Allies used their airborne capabilities to seize significant objectives like bridges, road crossings and terrain area’s mainly on the eastern and western flanks.
The Allies also used their airborne infantry to land behind enemy forces on the beaches of Normandy to help egress the amphibious forces and also neutralize and destroy the Germans coastal defenses batteries. Sword beach was invaded by the British infantry, we the infantry made it ashore they were met with light resistance and the suffered minimal casualties. They had advanced five miles inland by the end of the first day of battle, but they did not meet their major objectives such as Caen which was still in possession of the Germans.
Juno beach was invaded by the Canadian army; they were met with heavy German resistance upon landing ashore in Normandy. There were by heavy machine gun fire, pill boxes, and other major concrete fortifications that the German army had set up. Juno beach was the second heaviest outpost guarded by the Germans. The Canadian Army was the only unit to reach all of their objectives on D-Day. Gold beach was invaded by the 50th (Northumbrian) infantry division; they were also met with stiff German resistance due to the Germans fortifying a village along the beach front.
However, the 50th infantry divisions were able to overcome Germans and were able to proceed to outskirts of Bayeux by the end of the first day. The 50th infantry division then linked with Allied commando units who were securing the Port-en-Bessin. This gave the Allies a base that they could deploy the PLUTO pipeline. Omaha beach was invaded by the American allies; they met fierce resistance from the German 352nd Infantry Division who were Germany’s best trained force for defending the beaches and coastal areas. Omaha beach was so well fortified by the Germans that the Americans missed most of their landing objectives.
However, after battling the Germans for three days the American allies were able to penetrate the Germans fortifications and move forward. Utah beach was invaded by the 4th infantry division; they were met with very little German resistance and were able to move further inland by the late afternoon where they linked up the 101st airborne division. After the beaches were secured allied forces were able to set up the Mulberry Harbors, which allowed supplies and reinforcements to come ashore to support allied forces.
Victory in Normandy was followed by a pursuit to the French border in short order, and Germany was forced once again to reinforce the Western Front with manpower and resources from the Soviet and Italian fronts. By September, Allied forces of seven field armies (two of which came through southern France in Operation Dragoon) were approaching the German frontier. Allied material weight told heavily in Normandy, as did intelligence and deception plans. The general Allied concept of the battle was sound, drawing on the strengths of both Britain and the United States.
German dispositions and leadership were often faulty, despite a creditable showing on the ground by many German units. In larger context the Normandy landings helped the Soviets on the Eastern front, who were facing the bulk of the German forces and, to a certain extent, contributed to the shortening of the conflict there. War in Europe The Battle of Atlantic was a battle that began with Great Britain declaring war on the Germans in September of 1939. The battle of the Atlantic brought about significant changes and creative inventions to the allies military.
This was a major reason that allied forces were able to defeat the Germans in the Battle of Atlantic. The Battle of the Atlantic cost thousands of soldiers their lives and thousands of Navy ships were destroyed as well. During World War II allied forces conducted strategic bombing missions against the German’s. Allied forces would bomb railways, harbors, industrial places, and cities. As World War II begins to intensify, allied forces began to conduct numerous bombing missions. Allied forces bombed city believes that it was physiological warfare and they believe it would break the enemy’s will to continue fighting. The Majdanek concentration camp was located in Eastern Poland and was the first concentration camp that was liberate by the soviets in July of 1944. Before the Soviets were able to liberate the Majdanek concentration camp the German Nazi’s had killed between 90,000 and 140,000 prisoners. Majdanek concentration camp was initially a Prisoner of War camp that housed Russian Prisoners of War, but the camp soon turned towards a concentration camp for the Jews. It is estimated that 60,000 Jews were killed during the camps operation.
In July of 1944 the soviets advanced on the Majdanek concentration so fast that the German Nazi’s were not able to conceal the evidence of the torture and killings they had committed. Liberation of Paris America was in war on two fronts, the war against Japan, and the war against Germany. The beginning of the conflict started with Paris started with Britain and Germany over a blockade that was preventing America to trade with either country. America had signed a treaty to stay out of the conflicts with foreign countries.
America was drawn into the conflict when Germany decided to launch a full scale war with against Britain and France (Schultz, “World War II,” 2012). Paris had been invaded by the Germans, causing stress, killings, and havoc to the residents until D-Day, a code name for Destination Day, when America and France liberated Paris and broke the Strong hold of Germany and freed Paris (“Weider History Group”, 2006). Operation Market Garden was a strategic military maneuver plan in September 1944 to be carried out by planning to attack the Germans from the north, south, across the Rhine River, and west of Normandy along with an air attack.
This plan failed due to conflict in order on when to strike and bad weather (Macdonald, n. d). The Germans strategy was if they could take control of smaller section of a country like Belgium, they would eventually take control of the country entirely. The Battle of the Bulge was one of the largest battles to take place on the west front. They lost the battle because they were spread too thin and was unsuccessful in knocking out the power in Bastogne, Belgium (Schultz, “World War II,” 2012). During the time of war the three allied forces, Stalin,
Churchill, and Roosevelt was under great concern of the condition Poland would be in as they draw near their victory of the World War in January 1945. The Soviet Union, United States, who sided with Great Britain, was at odds with each other over Poland of which Soviet Union occupied. The Soviet Union wants to serve as a buffer for Poland whiles the United States and Britain wand Poland to be more independent. The Soviet Union proposal was more favorable and resulted in the Yalta Agreement. Churchill was in disagreement with the decision and the Soviet and Britain ended up in a Cold War (Schultz, “World War II,” 2012).
While at the conference meeting in Yalta, Churchill and his ally, Roosevelt was planning an attack on Dresden, a city outside of Berlin. This city was a city of refuge that had no military stations of weapons. It only was a place that had hospitals and house to care for the wounded from the military. The people fled to the city seeking refuge from the Red terror of the war. Many of them were Jews, men women and children. The total death from the bombing is really unknown but is to be said to be over 600,000 (“The WWII Dresden Holocaust – A single Column of Flame”, n. . ). During the time of all the events that took place in Germany and World War II, it finally broke the back and the strong hold that Hitler had over Germany. At the end of the Holocaust of Dresden and the slaughter of Jews from the concentration camps of which 30,000 were killed, giving an estimated death toll of 600,000 men, women, and children. Hitler was known to have committed suicide in April 30, 1945, given victory over Germany, known as of today called V- E Day, “Victory in Europe Day (Schultz, “World War II,” 2012). War in the Pacific
The United States was holding a war on two fronts, the war in Germany with Britain and France against Germany, and the war against Japan. The Great Depression was perhaps the cause of both wars. With the Stock market crashing and the fall of the economy, America and some of the countries it served and served it was becoming financially ruin and was fighting to stay in power. Each country feeling its own power was trying to make sure that they were not going to be taken advantage of (Schultz, “World War II,” 2012). America had a strong presence in the Pacific and
Japan did not want them there. They were fighting over who would control Hawaii. Japan also wants to take control of all Asia and China. During the time of World War II, Hong Kong was a part of Britain territory. MacArthur and Nimitz are two officers that have great similarities in helping turn the war to the benefit of America. Douglas MacArthur was a General in the U. S Army and Admirable Chester Nimitz was an officer in the United States Navy who had different styles of leadership that worked together to regain control of land and water in the Pacific War. Gen.
MacArthur took control of the Philippines and Adm. Nimitz gain control of the Pacific. Churchill and Roosevelt were winning the war. Along with the best two commanders, they began to use a strategy to keep Japan from getting a foothold by sending troops to take over small islands and maintaining control and at the same time pushing the Japanese back while earning the name Island Hoppers (Schultz, “World War II,” 2012).
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