Module 1 – Case
STRESS AND THE NEUROENDOCRINE RESPONSE
STOP!!! Review the text and diagram on the Home page and the .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=8746″>introductory Anatomy and Physiology tutorial before proceeding with this assignment!
Now study this diagram showing how the .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=5824″>body responds to stressful stimuli. Notice that short-term stress follows one signaling pathway that begins in the brain, travels out the spinal cord, and directly to the adrenal glands. Many organs of the body will receive direct stress response messages using this pathway as well. When the adrenal glands receive the signal from this pathway, they release a stress hormone that signals many systems in the body to prepare to either run away from the stressor (such as a predator or an oncoming vehicle, for example), or fight. The part of the nervous system that activates this response to acute stress is called the sympathetic nervous system. After the stressful stimulus has passed, the parasympathetic (nicknamed the “rest and digest” response) calms the nervous system and restores the normal function of the body systems, maintaining homeostasis.
The Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
These two divisions of the nervous system counteract each other to allow the body to receive the resources it needs to respond to a life-threatening situation (more glucose to the brain to enhance thinking ability, more oxygen and sugars to the muscles to run, etc.), and then return to a relaxed state. As you saw in the diagram, the sympathetic response begins when a stressful situation is detected by your sensory nerves, which make up the peripheral nervous system, or PNS. The sensory nerve endings can deliver this message directly to the brain through cranial nerves, which gather the information we need to give us the senses of smell, sight, hearing, and taste. Stress stimuli can also be detected by peripheral nerve endings throughout the body and delivered to the brain via the spinal cord. The brain and the spinal cord make up the central nervous system, orCNS.
View this diagram to review the anatomy of the .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=10056″>sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Notice that the “rest and digest” (parasympathetic) message is delivered through cranial nervesthat originate in the brain stem, and sacral nerves that originate in the sacrum at the end of thespinal cord. The “fight or flight” (sympathetic) response originates from the spinal cord. These nerve impulses are delivered by the CNS to the effector organs responsible for reacting to the situation by either simulating the organ to take action, or calming (inhibiting) the organ to return homeostasis. In this situation, the nervous system sends a signal to the endocrine system to handle acute, or short-term stress.
When the body is faced with long-term, or chronic stress, the endocrine system predominantly responds by releasing hormones such as cortisol. You will learn more about cortisol in the next module.
Read .trident.edu/content/enforced/41638-ANT100-FAL2014-1/Understanding%20the%20Stress%20Response%20-%20Harvard%20Health%20Publications.pdf?_&d2lSessionVal=qEkbHmHpME0P9etqqmR6oH4E9&ou=41638″>Understanding the Stress Response in Harvard Health Publications, published by the Harvard Medical School.
From your reading address the following:
1. Define acute and chronic stress. Provide examples.
2. What region of the brain detects stress and interprets the stimulus as dangerous? What is its function, and where does it relay the signal that conveys the danger? What format is the signal in? What is the role of the region of the brain that receives the stress alert?
3. What is a hormone? What hormones are involved in the stress response? When are hormones released in the stress response?
4. What is the HPA and what role does it play in the stress response?
5. What recommendations are given to counter stress?
Organize this assignment using subtitles that summarize each question above. For example, to answer Question 1, use the subtitle: Acute versus Chronic Stress. Answer each question under the subtitle using complete sentences that relate back to the question. Be sure to include a reference section at the end of your assignment that lists the sources that you were required to read and any additional resources you used to research your answers. Follow the format provided in the Background page.
Module 1 – SLP
STRESS AND THE NEUROENDOCRINE RESPONSE
As you work through this SLP assignment, you will learn more about the flexibility, or plasticity, of the brain. You have learned about how the spinal nerves can deliver messages directly to effector organs from the CNS through peripheral nerves that branch off of the spinal cord. These nerves are collections of neurons bundled in connective tissue. Neurons also communicate with each other within the CNS and establish circuits and neuronal pathways.
First take some time to work through these tutorials about how neurons communicate:
1. .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=5530″>Neurons communicate with each other
2. Neurons communicate at .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=5527″>synapses
3. Communication is delivered via the .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=5529″>axon
4. .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=5538″>Synapses and neurotransmitters: Be sure to click on “Presynaptic neuron,” “synaptic cleft,” and “postsynaptic neuron.”
Throughout life, the connections between neurons in the brain develop and change according to the genetic foundations that the individual inherits from the parents, and the environmental influences to which the individual must respond. For example, the abundance of one type of neuron over another, and the neurotransmitter that each produces can be predetermined by the DNA an individual inherits. However, an individual who is exposed to chronic stress during developmental years may reinforce some response pathways more than individuals who do not experience the same patterns of stress. These points are summarized and explained further in this article “.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/stress-management/in-depth/stress/art-20046037?pg=2″>Stress Management,” provided by the Mayo Clinic. Read this brief article before continuing to the requirements for this SLP.
Continue your reading on how the brain handles stress and the idea of plasticity at .brainfacts.org/about-neuroscience/ask-an-expert/articles/2012/long-term-stress-and-the-brain/”>BrainFacts.org, a public information initiative of the Society for Neuroscience, The Kavli Foundation, and Gatsby. Read the article, “How does the brain handle long-term stress?” and follow the link to the article, “Effects of Stress on the Developing Brain” in the right-hand column of links provided on this page.
Address these questions in paragraph format to complete the SLP assignment for Module 1:
1. What is a neurotransmitter and what is its function?
2. What neurotransmitter is mentioned in the article, “How does the brain handle long-term stress?”
3. How is short-term stress described in this article?
4. Do a little independent research on the hippocampus. Where is it located in the brain? Briefly describe its function and neurogenesis. Insert a labeled picture into your assignment illustrating its location.
5. How is long-term stress differentiated from short-term stress in this article? What brain region is involved in this comparison and what is its general function? Insert a labeled picture of this region into your assignment illustrating its location in the brain.
6. After reading the article “Effects of Stress on the Developing Brain,” explain the implications of chronic stress on the brain and the rest of the body reported by the authors. What examples of chronic stressors are included?
7. What components of parental care are described as being important determinants of brain development in this article? What genetic influences are described as relevant to the ability to handle stressful environments?
SLP Assignment Expectations
Organize this assignment using subtitles related to the content for each question. Answer each question under the subtitle using complete sentences that relate back to the question. Be sure to include a references section at the end of your assignment that lists the sources that you were required to read and any additional resources you used to research your answers. Follow the format provided in the Background page.
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