Module 1 – Case
STRESS AND THE NEUROENDOCRINE RESPONSE
STOP!!! Review the text and diagram on the Home page and the .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=8746″>introductory Anatomy and Physiology tutorial before proceeding with this assignment!
Now study this diagram showing how the .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=5824″>body responds to stressful stimuli. Notice that short-term stress follows one signaling pathway that begins in the brain, travels out the spinal cord, and directly to the adrenal glands. Many organs of the body will receive direct stress response messages using this pathway as well. When the adrenal glands receive the signal from this pathway, they release a stress hormone that signals many systems in the body to prepare to either run away from the stressor (such as a predator or an oncoming vehicle, for example), or fight. The part of the nervous system that activates this response to acute stress is called the sympathetic nervous system. After the stressful stimulus has passed, the parasympathetic (nicknamed the “rest and digest” response) calms the nervous system and restores the normal function of the body systems, maintaining homeostasis.
The Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
These two divisions of the nervous system counteract each other to allow the body to receive the resources it needs to respond to a life-threatening situation (more glucose to the brain to enhance thinking ability, more oxygen and sugars to the muscles to run, etc.), and then return to a relaxed state. As you saw in the diagram, the sympathetic response begins when a stressful situation is detected by your sensory nerves, which make up the peripheral nervous system, or PNS. The sensory nerve endings can deliver this message directly to the brain through cranial nerves, which gather the information we need to give us the senses of smell, sight, hearing, and taste. Stress stimuli can also be detected by peripheral nerve endings throughout the body and delivered to the brain via the spinal cord. The brain and the spinal cord make up the central nervous system, orCNS.
View this diagram to review the anatomy of the .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=10056″>sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Notice that the “rest and digest” (parasympathetic) message is delivered through cranial nervesthat originate in the brain stem, and sacral nerves that originate in the sacrum at the end of thespinal cord. The “fight or flight” (sympathetic) response originates from the spinal cord. These nerve impulses are delivered by the CNS to the effector organs responsible for reacting to the situation by either simulating the organ to take action, or calming (inhibiting) the organ to return homeostasis. In this situation, the nervous system sends a signal to the endocrine system to handle acute, or short-term stress.
When the body is faced with long-term, or chronic stress, the endocrine system predominantly responds by releasing hormones such as cortisol. You will learn more about cortisol in the next module.
Read .trident.edu/content/enforced/41638-ANT100-FAL2014-1/Understanding%20the%20Stress%20Response%20-%20Harvard%20Health%20Publications.pdf?_&d2lSessionVal=qEkbHmHpME0P9etqqmR6oH4E9&ou=41638″>Understanding the Stress Response in Harvard Health Publications, published by the Harvard Medical School.
From your reading address the following:
1. Define acute and chronic stress. Provide examples.
2. What region of the brain detects stress and interprets the stimulus as dangerous? What is its function, and where does it relay the signal that conveys the danger? What format is the signal in? What is the role of the region of the brain that receives the stress alert?
3. What is a hormone? What hormones are involved in the stress response? When are hormones released in the stress response?
4. What is the HPA and what role does it play in the stress response?
5. What recommendations are given to counter stress?
Organize this assignment using subtitles that summarize each question above. For example, to answer Question 1, use the subtitle: Acute versus Chronic Stress. Answer each question under the subtitle using complete sentences that relate back to the question. Be sure to include a reference section at the end of your assignment that lists the sources that you were required to read and any additional resources you used to research your answers. Follow the format provided in the Background page.
Module 1 – SLP
STRESS AND THE NEUROENDOCRINE RESPONSE
As you work through this SLP assignment, you will learn more about the flexibility, or plasticity, of the brain. You have learned about how the spinal nerves can deliver messages directly to effector organs from the CNS through peripheral nerves that branch off of the spinal cord. These nerves are collections of neurons bundled in connective tissue. Neurons also communicate with each other within the CNS and establish circuits and neuronal pathways.
First take some time to work through these tutorials about how neurons communicate:
1. .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=5530″>Neurons communicate with each other
2. Neurons communicate at .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=5527″>synapses
3. Communication is delivered via the .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=5529″>axon
4. .pearsoncustom.com/mct-comprehensive/asset.php?isbn=1269879944&id=5538″>Synapses and neurotransmitters: Be sure to click on “Presynaptic neuron,” “synaptic cleft,” and “postsynaptic neuron.”
Throughout life, the connections between neurons in the brain develop and change according to the genetic foundations that the individual inherits from the parents, and the environmental influences to which the individual must respond. For example, the abundance of one type of neuron over another, and the neurotransmitter that each produces can be predetermined by the DNA an individual inherits. However, an individual who is exposed to chronic stress during developmental years may reinforce some response pathways more than individuals who do not experience the same patterns of stress. These points are summarized and explained further in this article “.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/stress-management/in-depth/stress/art-20046037?pg=2″>Stress Management,” provided by the Mayo Clinic. Read this brief article before continuing to the requirements for this SLP.
Continue your reading on how the brain handles stress and the idea of plasticity at .brainfacts.org/about-neuroscience/ask-an-expert/articles/2012/long-term-stress-and-the-brain/”>BrainFacts.org, a public information initiative of the Society for Neuroscience, The Kavli Foundation, and Gatsby. Read the article, “How does the brain handle long-term stress?” and follow the link to the article, “Effects of Stress on the Developing Brain” in the right-hand column of links provided on this page.
Address these questions in paragraph format to complete the SLP assignment for Module 1:
1. What is a neurotransmitter and what is its function?
2. What neurotransmitter is mentioned in the article, “How does the brain handle long-term stress?”
3. How is short-term stress described in this article?
4. Do a little independent research on the hippocampus. Where is it located in the brain? Briefly describe its function and neurogenesis. Insert a labeled picture into your assignment illustrating its location.
5. How is long-term stress differentiated from short-term stress in this article? What brain region is involved in this comparison and what is its general function? Insert a labeled picture of this region into your assignment illustrating its location in the brain.
6. After reading the article “Effects of Stress on the Developing Brain,” explain the implications of chronic stress on the brain and the rest of the body reported by the authors. What examples of chronic stressors are included?
7. What components of parental care are described as being important determinants of brain development in this article? What genetic influences are described as relevant to the ability to handle stressful environments?
SLP Assignment Expectations
Organize this assignment using subtitles related to the content for each question. Answer each question under the subtitle using complete sentences that relate back to the question. Be sure to include a references section at the end of your assignment that lists the sources that you were required to read and any additional resources you used to research your answers. Follow the format provided in the Background page.
Module 2 – Case
CHRONIC STRESS AND BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE
STOP!!! BEFORE YOU PROCEED, BE YOU MUST HAVE READ THE HOME PAGE AND VIEWED ALL LINKS AND TUTORIALS!!! You will need this information to complete this Case Assignment.
Cortisol is an important hormone that is released in the stress response. In this module assignment, we will look at this hormone more closely to investigate:
1. the molecular composition of cortisol
2. the signaling pathway that elicits the production and release of cortisol
3. the cellular-, organ-, and organ system-level response that results from this cell signal
Read the following articles:
.dartmouth.edu/fall-2010/the-physiology-of-stress-cortisol-and-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis#.U-aGCONdVyw”>The Physiology of Stress: Cortisol and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis. Randall, M. 2011. Dartmouth Undergraduate Journal of Science.
.trident.edu/content/enforced/41638-ANT100-FAL2014-1/ptsd-and-cortisol.pdf?_&d2lSessionVal=qEkbHmHpME0P9etqqmR6oH4E9&ou=41638″>The Relationship between Traumatic Stress, PTSD and Cortisol. Delaney, E. Naval Center for Combat & Operational Stress Control.
After reading these articles, develop a 10–15 slide presentation in the following format.
Slides 1 and 2: The cascade of hormonal signals described by the section titled “Neurochemistry of Stress” of the Randall (2011) article. Use simple ovals or circles to depict the regions that release specific hormones in the hormone cascade that results in the release of cortisol. Label the hormones and regions and organs involved using textboxes (both options appear in the “Insert” tab of the PowerPoint program).
Slides 3 and 4: Label and diagram the kidney and adrenal gland. Include the following:
· Adrenal gland: cortex and medulla; regions associated with hormone production and release; hormones released in each region
· Kidney: cortex and medulla; region of water absorption and filtering; region of urine collection
Slide 5: Diagram and label the HPA axis. Include the hormones released by each component and their effect on the target organ(s).
Slide 6: Using your diagram from Slide 5, include the location of the hippocampus and the negative feedback loop that occurs when the hippocampus detects high cortisol levels. In the notes section, include a brief description of the effects associated with elevated cortisol exposure to the hippocampus.
Slide 7: Using bulleted points, list factors that exacerbate the stress response through activation of the HPA axis.
Slide 8–10: Do some additional research on PTSD. Diagram the regions of the brain believed to be involved with symptoms of PTSD. Explain the relationship between PTSD and depression and include relevant regions of the brain in your labeled regions.
Slides 11–13: In bulleted points, summarize the varied findings in the studies described in the article, “The Relationship between Traumatic Stress, PTSD and Cortisol.” Include the relationships found between cortisol levels and individuals with PTSD. In the notes include some explanations from the article for the variability in cortisol levels in these individuals. Explain the limitations of these studies mentioned by the author at the end of the article.
Slides 14 and 15: references cited, additional notes if necessary
For this Case Assignment you will develop a PowerPoint presentation that is approximately 15 slides in length and addresses the requirements outlined above. Place the text containing the answers to the questions above in the Notes section of your slide presentation. Reference all of your answers in your Notes sections with citations, such as (Murray 2014). Your slides should contain labeled images that illustrate the text that you included in your Notes sections. Do a Google search that includes the term “image” to find diagrams of the required organs and systems (e.g., search for “adrenal gland image”). Provide the website or reference used for each labeled image. Be sure your last slide is a references slide that contains the full references cited on your slides. Many resources are provided for you. Include these in your references section. This assignment should not require much independent research.
Module 2 – SLP
CHRONIC STRESS AND BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE
Continue your investigation of the effects of stress on brain function and behavior. Read more about the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex in these articles:
“.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-mindful-self-express/201208/how-prevent-stress-shrinking-your-brain”>How to Prevent Stress from Shrinking Your Brain,” in Psychology Today
“.rockefeller.edu/mcewen/stresshippo”>Stress Effects on Structure and Function of Hippocampus,” by the Rockefeller University
Answer the following questions in paragraph format to write an essay about the findings reported by these articles:
First, do some research on how the.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_04/d_04_cr/d_04_cr_peu/d_04_cr_peu.html”>amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex communicateand result in normal behavioral response. You will begin your reading on the amygdala by following this link. After reading this section, click on.mcgill.ca/flash/i/i_04/i_04_cr/i_04_cr_peu/i_04_cr_peu.html”>several other structures in the brainat the end of the page to read about the interactions between these three regions. Briefly describe this pathway and the behavior that results from the interaction of these regions using the format and requirements outlined below.
Body Paragraph 1
Summarize the effects of glucocorticoids on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex reported in the article.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-mindful-self-express/201208/how-prevent-stress-shrinking-your-brain”>How to Prevent Stress from Shrinking Your Brain.
Body Paragraphs 2 and 3
What effect on hippocampal cells have stress hormones had in recent studies described by.rockefeller.edu/mcewen/stresshippo”>Stress Effects on Structure and Function of Hippocampus? What effect have they had on the amygdala in studies? What are the implications of these effects? HINT: What are the functions of the regions and how might they be affected by changes in their structure?
Body Paragraph 4
What is neurogenesis and where does it occur in the brain? What effect on the regeneration of hippocampal cells is reported in this article? What is the mechanism?
Conclusion Paragraph 1
Summarize the effects of cortisol on this pathway by describing how PTSD can result from perpetuated cortisol release and how this can result in depression by activating and/or reinforcing.mcgill.ca/flash/a/a_08/a_08_p/a_08_p_dep/a_08_p_dep.html”>depression pathways.
Conclusion Paragraph 2
Describe the methods proposed to counteract the negative effects of chronic stress in.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-mindful-self-express/201208/how-prevent-stress-shrinking-your-brain”>How to Prevent Stress from Shrinking Your Brain.
SLP Assignment Expectations
For this assignment, write an essay using the outline above. You are provided with many scholarly references to complete this assignment. Include a References section that lists these and any additional sources you used (refer to the Background page). For any additional research you are required to do to complete your assignment, please use scholarly references such as a peer-reviewed journal article or a government-sponsored or university-sponsored website. As you read through your sources, take notes from your sources and then write your paper in your own words, describing what you have learned from your research. Direct quotes should be limited and must be designated by quotation marks. Paraphrased ideas must give credit to the original author, for example (Murray, 2014).Direct copying from “homework help” websites will not receive credit.
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