Several different projects may be required during the life of a system, first to develop the original system and then upgrade it later. The primary concern is with getting the system developed and deployed the very first time. One of the key, fundamental concepts in information system development is the Systems Development Life Cycle. The Systems Development Life Cycle is an entire process of building, deploying, using, and updating an information system Satzinger, J. W. , Jackson, R. B. , & Burd, S. D. (2009).
Systems development includes four project managers, six system analysts, 10 programmer analysts, and a couple of clerical support employees. This paper has two objectives. The first is to explain the components of a formal SDLC process. The second is to identify types of employees involved in the SDLC process and their roles Although it is difficult to find a single, comprehensive classification system that encompasses all of the approaches, one useful technique is to categorize SDLC approaches according to whether they are more predictive or adaptive.
In predictive the requirements are well understood and well defined. There is low technical risk. On the other hand in adaptive, the requirements and needs are uncertain. There is high technical risk. The SDLC consist of four groups of activities: planning, analysis, design, and implementation. These activities are sometimes referred to as phases, and they are the elements that provide the framework for managing the project. Throughout the SDLC, the analyst’s role as a project manager is being responsible for initiating, planning, executing, and closing down the systems development project Satzinger, J. W. , Jackson, R. B. , & Burd, S. D. (2009).
Project management is arguably the most important aspect of an information systems development project. Effective project management helps ensure that systems development projects meet customer expectations and are delivered within budget and time constraints. A project manager will periodically review the status of all ongoing project task activities to assess whether the activities will be completed early, on time, or late.
Moreover, project scheduling and management require that time, costs, and resources be controlled. The roles and responsibilities of developers are large in number. The primary responsibilities are: to write code or documentation patches or contribute positively to the project in other ways. A developer’s contribution is always recognized. The software developer has to evaluate, assess and recommend software and hardware solutions. Develop software, architecture, specifications and technical interfaces.
Design, initiate and handle technical designs and complex application features. Initiate and drive major changes in programs, procedures and methodology. And Coordinate with other developers and software professionals. Once system developers have accumulated the user requirements for the new system, analysts proceed to the system design stage. A system analyst researches problem, plans solutions, recommends software and systems, at least at the functional level, and coordinates development to meet business or other requirements Hughes, A. (2013).
A system analyst may identify, understand and plan for organizational and human impacts of planned systems, and ensure that new technical requirements are properly integrated with existing processes and skill sets. The analyst should also plan a system flow form the ground up, perform system testing, deploy the completed system, document requirements or contribute to user manuals, and help programmers during system development. Whenever programmers need help the system analyst provides use cases, flowcharts or even database design.
The most difficult task in system analysis is to identify the specific requirements that the system must satisfy. System development projects are organized around the systems development life cycle (SDLC), and phases the SDLC include activities that must be completed for any system development project. These phases are project planning, analysis, design, implementation, and support. Any organization can develop an information system in lots of ways. . System development includes four project managers, six system analysts, 10 programmer analysts, and a couple of clerical support employees.
The role of a project manager is organizing and directing other people to achieve a planned result within a predetermined schedule and budget. The project manager can be defined as the processes used to plan the project and then monitor and control it. The other systems analysts assigned to the team are experienced developers with strong analytical skills, as well as experience in managing and controlling projects Hughes, A. (2013). Some developers think of a model as documentation produced after the analysis and design work is done.
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