Richard M. Nixon, was born on 9th January 1913 in Yorba Linda, California. He graduated from Whittle College in 1934, then obtained law degree from Duke University in 1937. From 1937 to 1942, he jobbed as a lawyer in Whittle California. In June 1938, he joined the Republican Party. From 1942 to 1946, Nixon was in the American Navy, and was promoted to Navy Lieutenant Commander. In 1946, Nixon was elected as a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives to begin a career in politics. In 1950, he was elected as a U.S. Senator. In 1952, as Eisenhower’s running mate, he was elected as Vice President. In 1956, he was re-elected Vice President. Nixon ran for president in 1960, was defeated by John F. Kennedy under a narrow vote differential. Again he was defeated in 1962 when running for governor of California, which means he temporarily left the central state power hub. After his defeat, Nixon has worked as a lawyer in Los Angeles and New York. Nixon’s return to politics in 1968, the U.S. presidential election that year, he defeated Democrat Hubert Humphrey and independent candidates Wallace, was elected to the 46th (37th term) president. January 1973 re-election the 47th president. During his ruling, Nixon internal goal is to curb inflation and revive the U.S. economy. Externally, he proposed the Nixon Doctrine, in direct contact with the P.R.China. August 8, 1974 “Watergate” event forced him to resign as president, became the first resignation of the president whom in order to avoid sanctions and conviction for his misuse of authority.
In July 1959, as U.S. Vice President, Richard Nixon was asked by President Eisenhower to attend the opening ceremony of the American National Exhibition held in Moscow. For this exhibition, the entire exhibition hall were decorated with the everything American citizen can have in mind. There was full of modern and automated leisure or entertainment equipment, to present that the results in the large-scale commodity economy and the market economy of American capitalist system. At a kitchen booth template of American-style villa, Nixon and the former Soviet Union Minister, Nikita Khrushchev, Chairman of the meeting launched a controversy on the issue of the East-West ideological and nuclear war, also debated the merits of between capitalist economic system and communism (Social Marxist) economic system. Most Americans thought Nixon won the debate, his prestige therefore greatly increased at state. This is the famous “Kitchen Debate.” This debate coincided with a period of scale during the Cold War.
In the Nixon term, the withdrawal of U.S. troops in Vietnam gradually ended that field of war which plunged the country into crisis. On July 25, 1969, Nixon visited to Asia via Guam, and announced a new policy in Asia. The key points were: After the Vietnam War, the United States would continue to play an important role, and abide by the treaty obligations already undertaken. But unless the threat by the nuclear powers, the United States would encourage its Asian allies take the responsibility in their own internal security and military defense, while the U.S. was to avoid involvement in the Vietnam-style war. Collective security was the seeking goal in support of its allies of US against the nuclear-powered countries. The Asian policy known as the “Guam Doctrine.” Then during Nixon’s State of the Union message over the years, this policy was extened to the global policy and the general policy of dealing comprehensive relations with his allies. In 1970 he summed up this doctrine for the United States and US allies among the world’s “partnership” (including the military, political and economic aspects); and noted that the centerpoint was the United States would no longer bear the full responsibility of defending the world’s free nations. Nixon Doctrine treated with the post-war inconsequence while U.S. twice involved in the Korean War and Vietnam War; also as the United States conducted in areas of national war of the countries which were absence of a formal commitment, absence of in the meaning of alliance technically. For these areas, in order not to over-stretching forces, but still cannot give up the duties, the Nixon Doctrine agree to U.S. intervention with three criteria: First, the United States would keep its treaty commitments. Second, if a nuclear-power threatens the freedom of U.S. allied countries, or threaten the countries which its survival were concerned in the US national security, the United States would “provide umbrella.” Third, once it comes to non-nuclear aggression, the United States would “rely on the country directly threatened to assume the manpower to provide primary responsibility for defense.” January 27, 1973, the United States signed up “Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam”. March 29, the U.S. military completely evacuated from Vietnam, the Vietnam War which lasted longest in U.S. history, also made the country into crisis, finally got end up.
Nixon attempted to establish diplomatic relations with the P.R.China by table tennis, to support their entry into the United Nations. “Ping-pong Diplomacy” has improved relations between China and the United States. In February 1972, Nixon visit to China, who became the first U.S. President to visit Mainland China, and was the first one to visit a country of that U.S. has no formal diplomatic relations with. The 7-day visit to China was called “the week changing the world”. Nixon’s visited to Beijing, Hangzhou, Shanghai three cities, and initialed “Sino-US joint communiques” (“Shanghai Communique”) with Enlai Zhou at gardens beside West Lake in Hangzhou, which was a sensation of the world. Nixon to opened the door for Sino-US relations and made great contribution of improving and developing Sino-US relations. Relations between the PRC and the United States normalized. The United States, China and the Soviet Union began to form triangular diplomacy of the situation. It was a decisive factor in the development international situation over a very long time.
Richard M. Nixon, the Memoirs of Richard M. Nixon, Simon & Schuste, Nixon Library Edition, 1990
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