First acknowledgement is to almighty for guiding the intellect long the correct path. We hope it is a continuous process. Not forgetting our family for not providing everything that is related to this project work and their advice, which is the most needed for this project. We would also like to thank them for providing internet, books, computer and all that as our source to complete this project. They have also supported me and encouraged me to do this project. Then we would like to thank our teacher, Mrs. Reeta Singh for guiding me throughout this paper presentation.
Our teacher has given us a suitable and very good project; Last but not the least we would like to thank our friends who shared their ideas with us; and were able to combine and discuss together to have completed our task. Finally we would like to thank to our school for providing us information about the project and choosing an appropriate task for the students of class 9. Introduction Solid waste is an byproduct of human activities which tends to increase with rapid urbanization, improved living standards and changing consumption patterns.
Management of increasing amounts of solid waste has become a major challenge in many cities in developing countries. If solid waste is properly used, it can be a valuable resource, but if it is not effectively managed, it can result in serious adverse impacts on environment and public health. Solid waste management is therefore a critical component within urban sanitation and it is also one of the most important and resource intensive services provided by municipalities. Most urban residents consider solid waste management as the most important environmental problem in urban areas of Nepal.
In Nepal, urbanization is increasing at an alarming rate putting immense pressure on municipal services, particularly to manage the ever increasing amounts of waste. At present most of the wastes generated in municipalities are not being adequately managed thereby creating a serious health and environmental hazard. Therefore, poor urban settlements are most affected because of indiscriminate dumping and lack of open spaces The environmental implication of solid waste management failure has resulted in the decline of health and hygiene conditions of a growing population.
Nepal and especially the capital Kathmandu are today going through rapid changes and the urbanization is going fast. The urbanization result in more waste and concurrently the development result in new life patterns, standard of living and attitudes change the composition. New industries are erected that changes the waste composition to include more and more hazardous waste. The situation in Kathmandu is not representative for whole Nepal but if the developing problems that are connected with solid waste are not taken care of further urbanization will most likely give similar scenario in other growing cities.
Only about 15 percent of Nepal’s total population lives in urban areas. However, because of the lack of employment opportunities in rural areas and the concentration of many facilities and services such as education and health care in urban centers, the rate of urbanization is very high. With rapid urbanization and changing consumption patterns, solid waste management has become a major challenge in most urban centers in Nepal, particularly the larger ones. Only 17 percent of urban households have their waste collected by waste collectors.
Furthermore, in low-income households, indicated by houses having no toilets, only 2 percent of the households have their waste collected. Open waste piles are a common site and the work of municipalities is often limited to sweeping the streets and dumping the waste in the nearest river or vacant land. Modern waste management techniques, such as source separated door-to-door collection systems, material recovery and recycling facilities, sanitary landfilling, and private sector participation have not yet been introduced in most municipalities.
Management of solid waste is a growing concern in Nepal as urban population densities increase and flat usable land is in short supply. Although small urban centers were declared to be municipalities, they suffer from a lack of infrastructural, technical and financial resources to tackle the problems of waste management. With increasing public awareness about good health and a clean environmental sanitation, solid waste management has now become the priorities of the municipalities in Nepal.
Municipalities, for managing the waste, are expressing their desire to develop final disposal system even though collection systems are still not in place. They are also promoting waste reduction, reuse, and recycling among the communities. Objectives With the following objectives we carried out this project work: * To find out about the current waste management system in our city * To find out about the composition of waste * To find out about the status of waste * To find out about the effect of improper solid waste management * To find out about the dumping site of wastes To find out about the challenges of proper waste management * To find out about various problems related to waste management * To collect the suggestion to proper waste management Methodology We collected our information from various measures and they are as follows:- * Literature Review – We read various types of books and collected various types of information from books. The information about solid wastes in our settlement area was collected from books related the subject. We got the information of necessity of solid waste management from books. * Internet We collected our information from internet.
Websites related to our case study helped us dramatically to find the importance of solid waste management in our settlement area. Importance and the necessity of good environment etc. , information we got it from various websites like: * Questionnaire We asked question to people from our locality to obtain their views on different topics. In order to collect information we asked the importance of natural resources in our valley Kathmandu. This really helped us in getting students as well as people opinion about natural resources in our settlement area.
We asked these questions: * What are your views on management strategy solid waste? * How can we reduce waste? * How can we manage them? * Observation We observed our area, our surrounding . This helped to get us information in Kathmandu. By viewing various places, we collected many various type of information about natural resources in our settlement area. * Newspapers We collected information about solid waste management in our settlement area by reading various types of articles from newspaper. This helped us to know the deterioration of environment by the people.
Observation Effective solid waste management is more than just cleaning the streets or collecting waste and dumping of the collected waste, as practiced by most municipalities. It requires efficient combination of various components of solid waste management in an integrated manner. Integrated solid waste management is therefore a process of optimizing the waste management system as a whole with application of a variety of suitable technologies. : The various methods for proper solid waste management are as follows:
Composition of waste From the above chart, we can present that most of the waste produced in Kathmandu metropolitan city is from organic matters that is about 70%. This proves that there is no any proper management of organic waste in Kathmandu valley. After organic waste, the most pollutant is plastics which can’t be recycled at all. However, there are some wastes treatment plants in Kathmandu valley which are trying to decrease the pollution by managing organic waste and recycling some possible materials.
The increasing rate of all these solid wastes treatment plants, give us the hope that Kathmandu valley will soon get rid of lots of wastes and will become a pollution free city. However, the increasing rate of industries and factories will also increase air pollution and too, solid wastes. The total waste production of Kathmandu valley can be illustrated in the following table given: The generation of waste in Kathmandu valley in given chart shows that a person, in total, produces minimum wastes of 300 grams. Organic waste is produced 265000 kg daily.
Causes for all these pollution are listed below: •Centralization • Rapid population growth •Not proper management of waste produced •People without thinking that they are dirtying where they are living •Unplanned and haphazard urban expansion •Change in consumption patterns and living standards •Commerce, business, industry and services etc. Waste Collection Waste collection is generally considered to be the most important component of any waste management system because it is the most expensive and visible part of the system.
Therefore, properly designed and executed waste collection systems can result in significant savings and reduction in environmental and public health risks. The following issues generally need to be considered in designing a waste collection system: * Containerization and on-site storage of waste * Source separation * Collection mechanism (roadside collection, door-to-door collection, communal containers, on-time collection etc. ) * Cleansing of streets and other public places * Time of collection
* Type of vehicles used for collection Frequency of collection * Route planning * No. of staff used for collection * Special collection for bulk waste generators * Separate collection for special waste such as medical waste and household hazardous waste * Transfer of waste from primary collection vehicles to larger vehicle for secondary transport In Kathmandu, however, waste collection systems are not properly planned to effectively utilize available resources. Less than half of waste gets collected and almost all of the collected waste is dumped haphazardly in a crude manner.
In many municipalities, waste generators generally dump the waste on the streets at any place at any time and sweepers collect the waste and pile it up at a certain location before it gets scooped up again and placed in a vehicle for transportation. This multiple handling of waste during collection makes the entire system inefficient and ineffective. Although many sweepers clean the streets, the streets are generally dirty because all the waste does not get picked up and waste is dumped on the streets even after they are swept.
However, several municipalities have taken the initiative to introduce waste collection systems that are more efficient and effective. Some have distributed bins to encourage proper storage of waste at source and several municipalities have introduced door-to-door or on-time collection systems, where waste is transported straight from the source to a collection vehicle at a given time. This avoids the need for multiple handling of waste and also reduces the cost of street sweeping.
In Kathmandu, it is now estimated that more than half the household have this type of system. In most cases, this service is being provided by private sector or community groups. This also makes it easier to collect service fee from the users, which is essential to make the solid waste management as a whole financially sustainable. Once waste is collected in primary collection vehicles such as handcarts, rickshaws or tractors, it often needs to be transferred to larger vehicles for transportation to treatment or disposal sites.
This transfer process is usually inefficient and ineffective because the waste from the primary collection vehicle is normally dumped on the ground and then loaded on to the haulage vehicle manually or using a loader. A more effective method is to transfer the waste from the primary vehicle directly on to the secondary transport vehicle by collecting the waste in detachable containers, such as sacks or bins within the primary vehicle which can be lifted manually and emptied into the secondary vehicle without having to put the waste on the ground during the transfer process.
Another method is to use a split-level transfer process, where the primary collection vehicle is tipped to allow waste to fall in to the secondary vehicle that is placed at a lower level. Such transfer operations are practiced in a few locations in Kathmandu . Landfill Sites In 1976 after an assessment of 12 possible landfill sites Gokarna landfill site, located at the southern edge of the Gokarna Forest, was chosen. The construction started in 1984 and consisted of a small office building, a small guard house, a dozer garage, the foundation of the landfill, channeling of the surface water, a cross wall, a leachate pond and a boundary wall.
Wishes and cravings also directed what to be constructed at and around the site. To make compromises with the surrounding settlement the project constructed a pond for the animals, a road approaching the Mulpani Village and a water supply system . Because of negligence in maintenance the management had to face strong criticism from the public often threatening to close the site (Efforts in maintenance of the site was only done when crisis where created, which resulted in very costly solutions that did not prevent future negative environmental consequences (.
Nepal got democracy in 1990 and the political upheaval in early 1990 further worse the maintenance of the landfill site Since the people got their democratic rights and thereby also the right to complain, more complaints about the Gokarna landfill and how it was maintained yhe serious problems at Gokarna started as a result of following incidents: The compost plant at Teku, with a capacity of 3 tonnes, closed and the amount of waste that came to Gokarna increased and the one dozer, used for compaction, was not sufficient .
There were no road or other infrastructure at the site and the vehicles drove and dumped waste near the pond. Since the compaction was inadequate a big landfill slide covered the entire leachate pond with waste . The waste was not covered properly which resulted in a lot of litter at the site and in the surroundings. Insufficient management and preparation of the site in combination with the extreme monsoon 1993 resulted in local protests and the first closure of the site for a couple of weeks . During 1994-1995 the site was closed again, his time for about one and a half years due to protests from local people.
While the landfill site was not in operation the waste was dumped along the Bishnumati River between Shobhabhagwati and Balaju . The landfill was finally closed the end of June 2000 since the site was considered full. No alternative landfill site to Gokarna landfill was available. A new landfill site, Bancharedanda landfill site, on suggestion by the Ministry is under construction and located in Okharpauwa outside Kathmandu Valley. Close to the Bancharedanda site Sisdol is located where a temporary landfill is constructed.
The site in Sisdol is meant to be used for 2-3 years until the construction of Okharpauwa site is complete . The area is also planned to be used for the compost plant managed by Luna Nepal Chemicals & Fertilizers (P) Ltd. The site in Sisdol started to operate from 2004. Effects of Wastes Environmental costs Waste attracts rodents and insects which harbor gastrointestinal parasites, yellow fever, worms, the plague and other conditions for humans. Exposure to hazardous wastes, particularly when they are burned, can cause various other diseases including cancers.
Waste can contaminate surface water, groundwater, soil, and air which causes more problems for humans, other species, and ecosystems. Waste treatment and disposal produces significant greenhouse gas emissions, notably methane, which are contributing significantly to global climate change. Social costs Waste management is a significant environmental justice issue. Many of the environmental burdens cited above are more often borne by marginalized groups, such as racial minorities, women, and residents of developing nations.
However, the need for expansion and siting of waste treatment and disposal facilities is increasing worldwide. There is now a growing market in the transboundary movement of waste, and although most waste that flows between countries goes between developed nations, a significant amount of waste is moved from developed to developing nations. Economic costs The economic costs of managing waste are high, and are often paid for by municipal governments. Money can often be saved with more efficiently designed collection routes, modifying vehicles, and with public education.
Environmental policies such as pay as you throw can reduce the cost of management and reduce waste quantities. Waste recovery (that is, recycling, reuse) can curve economic costs because it avoids extracting raw materials and often cuts transportation costs. The location of waste treatment and disposal facilities often has an impact on property values due to noise, dust, pollution, unsightliness, and negative stigma. The informal waste sector consists mostly of waste pickers who scavenge for metals, glass, plastic, textiles, and other materials and then trade them for a profit.
This sector can significantly alter or reduce waste in a particular system, but other negative economic effects come with the disease, poverty, exploitation, and abuse of its workers Waste Management Incineration Incineration of waste is carried out in limited extent in Kathmandu Valley with one incineration plant in operation at Patan Hospital. Small incineration plants, with a capacity of 400 kg/day, have been tried out on medical waste, during the time when there was not any mayor in Kathmandu.
People protested loudly since they did not trust the plants and did not want them close to their houses. There are still oppositions for incineration of medical waste since no one knows who is responsible for the medical waste and people protest ( Due to the fact that no one knows who is responsible for the medical waste, no one takes the responsibility of handling the waste properly. Today the 2 tonnes medical waste that is generated per day is dumped along with the municipal waste at Balkhu along Bagmati River.
The confusion is that the big hospitals are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Health, teaching hospitals are under Ministry of Education and nursing hospitals are under the Ministry of Industry. Recycling and Composting Recycling of solid waste as a resource will reduce the amount of waste that needs to be disposed as well as the cost of waste management. The potential for recycling the waste generated in Nepalese municipalities is high because most of the waste is recyclable and technologies for recycling most of the waste is readily available in the country.
Furthermore, there is a market for most recyclable materials because of the demand created by the formal and informal private sector involved in this sector. On average, about 70 percent of the household waste generated in Nepalese municipalities consists of organic matter, while about 20 percent consist of recyclable inorganic materials such as paper, plastic and metal, and about 10 percent is inert materials. As about two thirds of the waste is organic, recycling of organic waste through composting or the application of other appropriate technologies can play an important role in waste management.
Composting of organic waste can also significantly reduce the cost and environmental impacts of waste management as organic waste in dump sites invites problems such as smell, leachate, methane gas and scavengers. Similarly, separation of organic waste also helps keep the inorganic waste such as paper and plastics clean, which in turn increases their market value and potential for recycling. Composting is a simple and effective way of recycling waste that is already being practiced by many people.
There are several different ways to compost waste such as aerobic composting in piles or windrows, composting in bins or vessels, and vermin composting. Similarly, in terms of scale, composting can be done at the household level, institutional level, community level or municipal level. Household and institutional composting systems are designed to cater to the needs of a single house or institution, while community scale plants may treat up to 3 tons of waste per day, while at the municipal level usually large mechanized plants treat the waste from a whole municipality or part of the municipality.
Several NGOs such as WEPCO in Lalitpur and NEPCEMAC in Kathmandu, and some municipalities are also practicing community composting. In these systems, the waste is collected through door-to door collection and then composted in piles or in large vessels or chambers. The compost is packed in bags and sold in the local market. Kathmandu Metropolitan City has also established a vermi composting system with a capacity to process about 1 ton of vegetable market waste per day.
In order to promote household composting, several municipalities are selling compost bins of various sizes at subsidized rates. Kathmandu, for example has sold more than2000 compost bins of 100 litre capacity. The bins are designed to be attractive, light weight, durable and large enough to handle waste from one household. The bin has two compartments – the top one for waste and the bottom one for compost. In order to allow natural aeration, the bin has holes on the sides and a bar screen between the compartments.
The municipality is currently selling the bins along with a set of necessary accessories, including a set of tools, a screen and a bottle of Effective Microorganisms for Rs. 750. The actual cost for the complete set is Rs. 1032. Similarly, other municipalities r are also selling compost bins Kathmandu Metropolitan City also sells vermi composting kits, consisting of a plastic tub; a set of 300 worms of the species bed material for the worms and a half-day training for Rs. 500. Such measures encourage households to reduce waste at source by practicing household composting.
Anaerobic digestion of waste to produce biogas and slurry is another way to recycle organic waste. In rural Nepal, thousands of households have set up domestic biogas plants to manage their waste, mainly cow dung and toilet waste, and produce biogas for use as a cooking fuel in their kitchen. More recently, some organizations and institutions have also started producing biogas from vegetable market waste and kitchen waste in urban areas. As for inorganic waste, most of the plastics, metal and paper in the waste stream can be recycled by private sector in Nepal. Conclusion Our country Nepal has been a victim of solid wastes from Kathmandu metropolitan city * Air pollution, Soil pollution, Soil pollution and Noise pollution exist in large scale
* Organic Wastes are the main composition of solid wastes in Kathmandu * Industrialization and centralization are two major contributors leading to production of wastes * In the developed countries, the wastes exist in low level even though the number of people and industries are very high. But in Nepal it is the just opposite- number of industries is low and the level of wastes and people is high. Wastes more than 63% are from household activities * Bagmati and Vishnumati rivers in the Kathmandu valley are the most polluted rivers in Nepal * “Wastes Aid” company has been helping to reduce solid wastes in Nepal * More than 300 gram of wastes is produced by a person per day Recommendation Considering the serious challenge currently faced by all municipalities in managing their waste and the large amount of resources that is being wasted in this process, there is an urgent need for municipalities to learn from the few successful innovative practices and replicate them.
For this to happen, the following steps need to be taken ?All municipalities should develop strategies to establish effective and efficient integrated waste management systems with private sector and community participation. The central government and other partners can provide technical support and guidance in this process. ?Municipalities need to design systems that will maximize separation and management of waste at source in order to reduce the total amount of waste that is disposed and the cost associated with it.
This will require active engagement with local communities to raise awareness, skills and motivation to do household composting and recycling. Source separated collection systems, distribution of compost bins and “other things for plastic waste collection are innovative systems that have been tried out and can be replicated. ?Community Participation and Training ?Community Recycling Centers ?Mass Education ?As waste collection is the most expensive part of any waste management system, municipalities need to increase the efficiency of their waste collection systems.
This may be done by introducing on-time or door-to-door collection system. The practice of dumping waste on the street so that it can be swept and collected has to stop as it is highly inefficient and results in environmental pollution. ?In order to maximize waste recycling the private sector should be encouraged to set up and operate waste recycling and composting facilities. ?Non-recyclable waste should be managed in sanitary landfills with appropriate systems for pollution control such as buffer zones, proper drainage, and covering material. ?Hazardous medical waste should not be mixed with ordinary waste.
They should be collected and managed separately ?As the cost associated with municipal waste management can be very high, the municipality should seek ways to optimize the system and collect service fee from the people to in order to ensure that the waste management system as a whole is financially sustainable. The private sector and community groups can be involved in waste management to reduce cost and increase efficiency. However the process of involving the private sector should be clear and transparent and the municipality should carefully monitor the performance of the private operator.