INTRODUCTION Leadership is unique to a particular person to another. The skills adopt by leaders can be from experience, training or formal education. Adaptations of type of leaders are also unique and the ways the leaders lead are reflection of themselves. For instance, if a person is a visionary person, when he or she becomes a leader, they will become a visionary leader.
Provided this, leaders must also equip themselves with other style of leadership that are able to ensure towards the academic achievements of students. Apart from that, training, Inservice trainings, seminars and workshops held by the education department government can drive attention towards the effective leadership style that will lead to better learning environment students’ academic achievement in an institution or school(http://www. articlesbase. com/leadership-articles/).
According to Balcon (year) (http://www. articlesbase. com/leadership-articles/), teachers has the role of leadership in the school as an autocratic leader, democratic, participatory and laissez faire. Autocratic leaders implied as leader that has no confidence and trust to subordinates and never delegates, motives by treats, little communication and teamwork. Next, the democratic leaders have complete confidence and trust to subordinates and allowing them to make decisions.
The motives are by setting goals, participation and sharing ideas Please give reference support. While laissez-faire acts upon the policy of non-interference and subordinates are free to do their work in pre-planned criteria and this leadership normally do not enjoys authority Please give reference support. According to Balcon (http://www. articlesbase. com/leadership-articles), the types of leadership stated are Transformational, Transactional or Laissez Faire Leadership. There are factors that lead a school towards success and one of the most mportant factor that brings about the success is better and motivating learning environment for better students academic achievement. Student academic achievement is very crucial to be address at every level, from a perspective of an individual, a family, an organization like school and nation as a whole. Student academic achievement must be achieved successfully together with non-academic area like co-curriculum. Nevertheless, the academic achievement is still a core business for a school to meet successfully. It is also the among the objectives of any school.
Based on leadership theories, there are eight type of leadership theories theorist; there are Great Man Theory, Trait Theory, Behavioural Theories, Participative Leadership, and situational Leadership, Contingency Theories, Transactional Leadership and Transformational leadership give the name of the writer with year not web address. (http://www. articlesbase. com/leadership-articles/). Teachers are the respondents because this research will find out the relationship between teacher leadership styles and students academic achievement.
Why teachers are the suitable respondents? Because, for instance, when a leader initiates a strategy, to be specific, academic strategy to increase students’ academic achievement in a school examination, leader is only initiating the strategy and instructing, but the teachers who are going to execute it. So, based on teacher’s perception as an executer for school’s strategy, they are the suitable respondents to find out which are the leadership style that promotes student academic achievement based on their perception.
Also the role of teacher in academic achievement of students is highlighted in below Table 1. Table 1: Contributions made by various inputs for academic achievement Inputs %| Contribution to good results| Effective teaching| 75| Adequate textbooks/tuitionand equipment| 15| Good physical facilitieseffectively used| 9| Others e. g. supervision,inspection and community supp ort| 1| Total| 100| Source: Chitiavi (2002) Here write full reference like you write at the end in references The concept and practice of teacher leadership have gained omentum in the past two decades. Teachers are assuming more leadership functions at both instructional and organizational levels of practice. Empirical literature reveals numerous small-scale, qualitative studies that describe dimensions of teacher leadership practice, teacher leader characteristics, and conditions that promote and challenge teacher leadership. Less is known about how teacher leadership style develops and about its effects on school and students. In addition, the construct of teacher leadership is not well defined, conceptually or operationally.
Therefore, this study will focus to find out the relationship between the teachers’ leadership styles and their students’ academic achievements STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: For last three decades, psychologists and sociologists have been studying the effects of teacher leadership styles on pupil attitudes, achievement, and behaviors (White and Lippit, 1960; Ryans, 1960; Anderson, et al, 1946; Franders, 1965; and Herman, et al. ,1946). Although these and other studies have made awareness about various kinds of influences teachers have made on their pupils, an important aspect of teacher leadership styles has been overlooked.
Also future research has focused on the differentiated paths by which teachers influence organizational capacity, professionalism, instructional improvement, and student learning has the potential to advance the practice of teacher leadership. Hence this study will Since this research will particularly focus on the effects of relationship between teachers’ leadership styles and students’ on academic achievements of 10th grade school students. in order to identify either any relationship exists between them or not. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: It is worth studying topic.
It would be fruitful for the teachers as well as for students. This study is significant as the results of this study would be applicable to the advancement of the concept of teacher leadership and effect of different styles on the student’s performance. This study would add in existing knowledge and will provide recommendations for further researches in the area of Teacher Leadership Style. These findings will may be unique to the locality of the school teachers, students and head teacher as the area is quite lacking behind in the field of research. There This ould be hardly any research being conducted in the area. The study may also recommend the most effective teacher leadership style for high academic achievements of students. The research findings will may help school leaders(principals) and head teachers to have a guidelines on the effective leadership styles that will prove to be helpful in betterment of school culture and increasing students academic achievements; directly or indirectly. Teachers as leaders who are servicing the institutions or schools come from different background in terms of education, demographic and culture.
The research findings will may assist teachers to establish their own leadership style best suited to their own personality, knowledge and situations affecting their roles to meet needs of the local context and at the same time to increase students academic achievements apart from formal training or education in the exposure of leadership styles. To go even further, this study will may conclude which leadership style show higher relationship as compared among them. Therefore, teachers would be able to make the findings as guidelines in practicing the leadership style accordingly.
OBJECTIVES: Objectives of the study are as follows: * To identify the leadership styles being used by teachers in the classroom * To find out the most effective teacher leadership style for students of subject English at secondary level * To find out the academic achievement of the students of the focused teachers. * To point out the relationship between the teacher leadership styles and academic achievements of their secondary students HYPOTHESIS: * H01: There is no significant leadership style of secondary school teachers.
There is no Teacher leadership styles has no significant relationship with academic performance of secondary school students in subject of English * H02: There is no significant relationship between leadership style of teachers and students’ academic achievement. Effect of democratic style of teacher leadership role on student’s performance in subject of English * H03:There is no significant effect of autocratic style of teacher leadership role on student’s performance in subject of
English * H04:There is no significant effect of laissez-faire style of teacher leadership role on student’s performance in subject of English * H05:There is no significant effect of participatory style of teacher leadership role on student’s performance in subject of English Initially two hypothesis are sufficient after data collection you may formulate the others DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Please write the reasons of delimitations; why AJK, why Out of two districts of AJ & K, only district Mirpur will be included in the study. Due to accessibility problem, time and financial constraints, District Muzaffarabad will not be the part of the study. * The study will include only secondary level students schools as at secondary level same Annual Exams is held by the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Mirpur AJ & K. * Only public secondary schools will be included selected, as separate schools for boys and girls in private sector are not available. Academic achievements of students are delimited to scores obtained in English subject in Annual SSC Examination 2011, as it is a compulsory subject and it will increase the generalizability of the research. * All boys and girls public schools are included in the population of the study * All rural and urban public secondary schools are included in the study. * Teacher leadership styles would be delimited to autocratic, democratic, participatory and laissez faire. METHODOLOGY The study is correlational in nature as it sought to establish relationship among two various variables i. . leadership styles and students’ academic achievement of the study. The statistical analysis will be conducted with the help of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). This study is Correlational research as the study is aimed at identifying and investigating the relationship between leadership styles of secondary school teachers and students’ academic achievements. Independent variable is leadership styles (autocratic, Democratic, laissez-Faire) of secondary school teachers and dependent variable is students’ academic achievements.
The stepwise method of study is as follows: Population: How Mirpur is selected please describe here. Generally and particularly in Mirpur District no research study is available had been ever conducted (it is sweeping statement) on Teacher Leadership Styles, though there is plethora of research studies related to Head Teacher Leadership styles. Therefore, District Mirpur will be selected as a population of the study But how selection is made. It is a district in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, which is part of the larger disputed region of Jammu and Kashmir.
The district is named after the main city, Mirpur. The District of Mirpur has a population of 371,000 and covers an area of 1,010 km2 (390 sq mi). This area share the diverse culture diversity and they are approximately consisting of people with lower level to higher-middle income family Please write the source name with year not web address, this should be in references (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Mirpur,_Azad_Kashmir#Education). The district is administratively subdivided into three tehsils: * Chakswari Dadyal * Mirpur District Mirpur comprise of total 105 public secondary schools for boys and girls. (http://www. pndajk. gov. pk/glance. asp). Please write the source name with year not web address, this should be in references Participants of the study are teachers and students of Government Secondary Schools focusing the area of District Mirpur AJ & K. Two populations of the study are: 1. All the Secondary School teachers from boysgirls public schools of rural and urban areas of District Mirpur 2.
All the Secondary School students from boysgirls public schools of rural and urban area of District Mirpur Table 2: Showing number of public secondary schools in urban and rural areas of District Mirpur Area| Number of secondary schools available(private & public)| No of Public Secondary Schools| Number of public secondary schools available for boys| Number of public secondary schools available for girls| Urban Area(Mirpur City)| 52| 14| 9| 5| Rural Area(30 Villages)| 107| 83| 35| 48| Total| 159| 97| 44| 53| (http://www. meramirpur. com/schools. html) Sampling:
Out of three Tehsils, Tehsil Mirpur is selected as sample of study by simple random sampling comprising of 30 villages. Total 97 public secondary schools are available in Tehsil Mirpur; 14 schools in urban and 83 schools in rural areas, for boys and girls | Secondary schools for boys| Secondary schools for Girls| By proportionate sampling, Boys schools included in study are(20%)| By Proportionate sampling, Girls schools included in study are(20%)| Urban| 9| 5| 2(1. 8)| 1| Rural| 35| 48| 7| 10(9. 6)| Total| 44| 53| 9| 11| All available secondary school teachers for English subject will be taken as sample of the study. 0 secondary schools will be selected for sample of the study by proportionate random sampling. Students will be selected from each sample school by simple random sampling to ensure the chance of participation for every student. Relevant DEO office will be visited for any relevant information. So the sample of the study would be as under: * 20 Secondary public schools in rural and urban areas of Tehsil Mirpur including 9 boys Secondary Schools (2 from urban and 7 form rural area), ten Girls Secondary schools (1 from urban and 10 from rural area). All available secondary school teachers of English subject in the selected schools of Tehsil Mirpur * 5 (Too less take at least 20 better to take all students of the English teacher) students of grade 10 will be selected from each school by simple random sampling and total of 100 students will may be the sample of the proposed study. INSTRUMENT OF THE STUDY It is better to use two instruments one rating scale for the teachers to assess their leadership style and the other for the students. In the study, researcher will use rating scale as an instrument of the study.
The instrument will gather data and answer the research objectives. The instrument of the study would be consisted of two parts; one will be for teachers and one will be for students. Rating scale for teachers would be adopt from Kreitner & kinicki, A (2001), modified and made it comprehensive according to need of the study after due permission. There would be ten questions about teacher leadership styles refer source writer with year not the web address (http://www. scribd. com/doc/3008658/effect-of-teacher-leadership-style).
Along with this, another rating scale for students regarding teacher leadership styles, a five point scale will be developed by the researcher; some items of the rating scale will be adapted from Sage Publications refer source writer with year not the web address (http://www. sagepub. com/northouseintro2e/study/resources/questionnaires/89527_03q. pdf). Result sheet ; marks obtained in English subject in Annual SSC Examination 2011, will be used as the academic achievement of 10th graders (2010-11). Result sheet data will be collected through school records, the relevant DEO offices, and the relevant BISE.
Keep this scoring key etc. in data analysis. The scoring key used by Kreitner & kinicki, A (2001), in their instrument and for rating scale developed by Sage Publications is as under: Responses| Rating| Strongly disagree| 1| Disagree| 2| Neutral| 3| Agree| 4| Strongly Agree| 5| Scoring Key: VALIDATION OF THE STUDY After the initial and required modification of the instrument, * A pilot study will be conducted to test validity and reliability of the instrument in the local context and gather information prior to a larger study, in order to improve the latter’s quality and efficiency.
The respondents for pilot study will be similar, comparable and selected from the target population but they will not be included in the a part of sample of the actual study. Instruments will be administered by the researcher personally. This pilot study will reveal the validity and reliability of the instruments in the local context. To estame the reliability of the instruments Chroback Alpha will be calculated. * Keep it at first and pilot study at second Also peer review and experts opinion would be considered for any further modifications in the instrument in order to make it more reliable and valid for the actual study.
This procedure will highlight the deficiencies in the proposed procedure of the study and these could then be addressed, to save time and resources expended on large scale study. ADMINISTRATION OF INSTRUMENT Researcher will approach the principals of secondary schools with a permission letter from whom? And will explain the purpose of the study. With the consent of teachers the questionnaire will be administered among the students. All the respondents would be provided with detailed information about the purpose of research and rating scale.
Additional information would be provided in case of any complication regarding the understanding of questionnaire. A letter will be written to the Education Secretary of AJ & K in order to get official permission to obtain the relevant data of English’ results in Annual Exams 2011 by the secondary school students held by the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Mirpur AJ & K. It will take minimum period of one-two months in order to complete data collection phase. DATA ANALYSIS Following steps will be followed to analyze the data: Test of significance will be applied in order to check whether there is a significant difference between the responses provided by the teachers and students on the rating scale designed to identify the leadership style * The variables of this study will be analyzed by applying parametric technique the Pearson-Product Moment Correlation Coefficient in order to test null hypotheses * Two way ANOVA will be applied to find out the effect of Teacher leadership styles on academic achievements of their secondary school students.
As levels of independent variable in the study are four, i. e. autocratic, democratic, participatory and laissez-faire. * Keep this at the first All computations will be made by utilizing SPSS-10 software package. The alpha value used would be at 0. 05 level of significance in all tests of hypotheses BIBLIOGRAPHY Please go through APA style of referencing on internet Anderson, H. H. , J. E. Brewer, and F. N. Freeman. 1946. ” Studies of Teachers Classroom Personalities, II. “Applied Psychology Monographs No. 8. Palo Alto: Stanford Uni Press.
Chitiavi, M. J. , 2002. Guidance and Counseling Series – School administration. Nairobi: Kenya Pavement Publishers. Lydiah, L. M. and Nasongo, J. W(2009). Role of the Headteacher in Academic Achievement in Secondary Schools in Vihiga District, Kenya. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences 1(3): 84-92. Maxwell Scientific Organization. Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya Lakin, W. R. , 1973. Contextual Influences on Teacher Leadership Styles. Sociology of Education Vol. 46, No. 4, 471-479. American Sociological Association.
Retrieved from: http://www. jstor. org/stable/2111900 Barr, Y. J. and Karen Duke,K. (2004) What Do We Know about Teacher Leadership? Findings from Two Decades of Scholarship. Review of Educational Research Vol. 74, No. 3 , 255-316. American Educational Research Association. Retrieved from: http://www. jstor. org/stable/3516026 Kreitner, R. , and Kinicki, A. (2001). Organizational Behavior (5th ed. , 774 pages). Burr Ridge, ILL: Irwin/McGraw-Hill. Flanders, N. A. “Teacher Influence, Pupil Attitudes, and Achievement. ” Cooperative Research Monograph No. 12.
Washington: U. S. Printing Office. Retrieved from website: http://www. jstor. org/stable/2111900? seq=8 Ryans, D. G. 1960. Characteristics of Teachers. Washington, D. C. : American Council on Education. White, R. K,. and R. Lippit. 1960. Autocracy and Democracy. New York: Harper. Herman, W. L. , J. E. Potterfield, C. M. DayTon, and K. G. Amercheck. 1969. “The Relationship of Teacher Centered Activities and Pupil Centered Activities to Pupil Achievement and Interest in 18, fifth Grade Social Studies Classes. ” American Educational Research Journal 6: 227-240