Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center PA 203 – Human Behavior in Organization and General Development Models of Organizational Behavior To understand: The Elements of Behavior System an Organizational The Role of Management’s Philosophy and Paradigms Alternative Models of Organizational behavior and Their Effects Trends in the Use of These Models Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Management’s Philosophy ? Values ? Vision ? Mission ? Goals Formal Organization Informal Organization Organizational Culture Leadership ?
Communication ? Group Dynamics Quality of Work Life (QWL) Motivation Outcomes: • Performance • Employee satisfaction • Personal growth and development Social Environment Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System The philosophy (model) of organizational behavior held by management consists and integrated set of assumptions and beliefs about the way things are, the purpose for these activities, and the way they should be. These philosophies are sometimes explicit, and occasionally implicit, in the minds of manager.
Five major organizational behavior philosophies includes autocratic, custodial, supportive, collegial and system. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System We are committed to quality, costeffectiveness, and technical excellence. People should treat each other consideration, trust, and respect. with Each person is valuable, is unique, and makes a contribution. All employees should be unfailingly committed to excellent performance. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System • Teamwork can, and should, produce far more hat the sum of individual efforts. Team members must be reliable and committed to the team. • Innovation is essential. • Open communications are important for attaining success. • Decision should be reached participatively. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Fact premise are acquired through direct and indirect lifelong learning and are very useful in guiding our behavior. Value premise represent our views of the desirability of certain goals and activities. Value premises are variable beliefs we hold and are therefore under our control.
Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System The rules by which we make decisions about right and wrong, should and shouldn’t, good and bad. They also tell us which are more or less important, which is useful when we have to trade off meeting one value over another. http://changingminds. org/explanations/values/values_morals_ethics. htm Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Values Statement We believe in demonstrated competence, institutional integrity, personal commitment and deep sense of nationalism. (TESDA) http://www. esda. gov. ph/page. asp? rootID=2=17=10 Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Our Values INTEGRITY: We are morally upright, honest and sincere in our private and public lives. PROFESSIONALISM: We consistently implement the law, provide timely and accurate information to investors, and render efficient and competent service to the public. ACCOUNTABILITY: We abide by prescribed ethical and work standards in government service. INDEPENDENCE: We act without fear or favor, and render sound judgment in the performance of our duties and responsibilities.
INITIATIVE: We are strategic and forward-looking in the fulfillment of our developmental and regulatory functions. (Philippine Securities and Exchange Commission) http://www. sec. gov. ph/ Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Value Statements The Commission, bound by its advocacy of genuine and ideal public service, remains committed in the propagation of the highest standards of integrity and organizational efficiency. As public servants whose cause is to serve the people … We recognize the value of gender-responsiveness on sustaining human development.
We encourage the genesis of new ideas that lead to policies and growth-enhancing work environments. We espouse the philosophy of genuine selfless public service as the true mark of performance and excellence. WE OFFER OURSELVES TO THE CAUSE OF SERVING THE PEOPLE, THEY DESERVE NO LESS. (Philippine Civil Service Commission) http://www. csc. gov. ph/cscweb/value. html Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System It represents a challenging portrait of the organization and its members can be – a possible, and desirable future.
Leaders need to create exciting projections about the organization should go and what major changes lie ahead. Once the vision is established, persistent and enthusiastic communication is required to sell it throughout the ranks of employees so they will embrace it with commitment. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System A premier institution of higher learning in teacher education, sciences and humanities. (BSU) ABS-CBN is the total information and entertainment company; a leading player and center of creativity in Asia, and a major player in the global market. ABS-CBN) To be the Premier Countryside Financial Institution. (Green Bank, Inc. ) TESDA is the leading partner in the development of the Filipino workforce with world-class competence and positive work values. (TESDA) Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Identifies the business it is in, the market niches it tries to serve, the types of customer it is likely to have, and the reasons for its existence. It even includes a brief listing of the competitive advantages, or strengths, that the firm believes it has.
It is more descriptive and less futureoriented than vision. Need to be converted to goal to become operational and useful. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Mission of TESDA TESDA provides direction, policies, programs and standards towards quality technical education and skill development. Mission of BSU To develop competitive professionals who are committed to build a sustainable life for all through quality instruction, research, extension and production. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System
Mission ABS-CBN To fulfill our pivotal role in shaping the Filipino people’s consciousness through information and entertainment programs that adhere to world class standards. To diversify and expand into new business ventures which include animation, postproduction, theater operations, theme parks, international movie joint ventures, audio production, licensing and merchandising, and other information and entertainment-related Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Mission of Green Bank, Inc.
To provide fast customer-driven products and services that exceeds client expectation efficiently and effectively; To care for the highly motivated staff by constantly seeking better competencies for them through strategic alliances and through a competitive compensation and benefits package. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Goals are relatively concrete formulations of achievements the organization is aiming for within set periods of time, such as one to five years.
Goal setting is a complex process, for top management’s goals need to be merged with those of employees, who bring their psychological, social, and economic needs with them to an organization. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System To establish good business relationships with our clients by the end of 2010. To keep client complaints down to no more than 5 complaints per month. To build a professional and effective team that will support & deliver Service Level Agreements with clients.
To ensure a 95% uptime service quality level is maintained for the computing environment for the entire year of 2006, while staying within budget. MANAGING EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE Models of Organizational Behavior Theory X Theory Y • The typical person • Work is natural as play or dislikes work and will rest. • People are not inherently avoid it if possible. • The typical person lazy. They have become lacks responsibility, that way as result of has little ambition, experience. and seeks security • People will exercise selfdirection and self-control above all. n the service of objectives to which they are committed. Models of Organizational Behavior Theory X Theory Y • People have potential. Under proper conditions they learn to accept and seek responsibility. They have imagination, ingenuity, and creativity that can be applied to work. • Most people must be coerced, controlled, and threaten with punishment to get them to work. Models of Organizational Behavior Theory X • Managerial role is to coerce and control employees. Theory Y • Managerial role is to develop the potential in employees and help them release that potential toward common objective.
Models of Organizational Behavior Models such as Theory X and Theory Y are also called paradigms, or frameworks of possible explanation for managers. Managers begin with certain assumptions about people and leads to certain interpretations, implications, and even predictions of events. Models of Organizational Behavior They influence managerial perceptions of the world around them. They define one’s boundaries and proved prescriptions for how to behave. They encourage resistance to change, since they have often worked in the past.
They may either consciously or unconsciously affects ones behavior. When new paradigms appear, they provide alternative ways of viewing the world and solving By: Joel Barker problems. Models of Organizational Behavior 1. Autocratic 2. Custodial 3. Supportive 4. Collegial 5. System Models of Organizational Behavior Autocratic Basis of model Managerial orientation Employee orientation Employee Power Authority Obedience Custodial Economic resources Money Supportive Leadership Support Collegial Partnership Teamwork System Trust, community, meaning Caring, compassion
Security and Job benefits performance Dependence Dependence Participation on psychological on boss organization result Status and Employee Subsistence Security recognition needs met Performance Minimum result Passive cooperation Awakened drives Responsible Psychological behavior ownership Selfdiscipline Selfmotivation SelfWide range actualization Passion and commitment Moderate to enthusiasm organizational goals Models of Organizational Behavior The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. Those who are in command must have the power to demand “you do this – or else” http://www. wlink. com/~donclark/leader/leadob. html Models of Organizational Behavior The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance minimal. result is http://www. nwlink. com/~donclark/leader/leadob. html Models of Organizational Behavior Its principal weakness is its high human cost especially as caused by micromanagement. Micromanagement – a natural pattern of autocratic managers – is the immersion of a manager into controlling the details of daily operations.
Employees typically detest a micromanager, with the result being low morale, paralyzed decision making due to fear of being second-guessed and high turn-over. Models of Organizational Behavior Useful: Acceptable approach to guide managerial behavior when there were no well-known alternatives. Useful under some extreme conditions such as organizational crises. Models of Organizational Behavior The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization. ttp://www. nwlink. com/~donclark/leader/leadob. html Models of Organizational Behavior The employee need that is met is security. Employee feel with reasonable contentment. Most employees are not producing anywhere near their capacities. The performance result is passive cooperation. http://www. nwlink. com/~donclark/leader/leadob. html Models of Organizational Behavior The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support. The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. http://www. nwlink. om/~donclark/leader/leadob. html Models of Organizational Behavior Psychological result is a feeling of participation and task involvement in the organization. Employees may say “we” instead of “they” Employees are strongly motivated because their status and recognition needs are better met, thus they have awakened drive for work. http://www. nwlink. com/~donclark/leader/leadob. html Models of Organizational Behavior The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork. The result is that the employees feel needed and useful. http://www. wlink. com/~donclark/leader/leadob. html Models of Organizational Behavior The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is selfactualization. http://www. nwlink. com/~donclark/leader/leadob. html Models of Organizational Behavior Employees normally feel some degree of fulfillment, worthwhile contribution, and self-actualization. This self-actualization will lead to moderate enthusiasm in performance. http://www. nwlink. com/~donclark/leader/leadob. html Models of Organizational Behavior
Employees want a work context that is ethical, infused with integrity and trust and provide an opportunity to experience a growing sense of community among coworkers. There is spirituality at work – the desire for employees to know their deepest selves better, to grow personally, to make a meaningful contribution to society, and to demonstrate integrity in every action taken. Models of Organizational Behavior Managers must increasingly demonstrate a sense of caring and compassion, being sensitive to the needs of the diverse workforce.
This model reflects the values underlying positive organizational behavior, where managers focus their attention on helping employees develop feelings of hope, optimism, self-confidence, empathy, trustworthiness, esteem, courage, and resiliency. Models of Organizational Behavior Managers at all levels needs to display two key ingredients: 1. Authenticity – the demonstrated ability to open themselves up to others by being transparent, while “walking the talk” of the underlying values. 2. Social intelligence. intelligence Models of Organizational Behavior
Five Dimensions of Social Intelligence 1. Empathy – appreciation for and connectedness with others. 2. Presence – projecting self-worth in one’s bearing. 3. Situational radar – ability to read social situations and respond appropriately. 4. Clarity – using language effectively to explain and persuade. 5. Authenticity- being “real” and transparent, while projecting honesty. Karl Albrecht Models of Organizational Behavior Managers try to convey to each workers, “You are an important part of our whole system. We sincerely care about each of you.
We want to join together to achieve a better product or service, local community, and society at large. We will make every effort to make products that are environmentally friendly”. Models of Organizational Behavior Facilitators Roles for System Model of OB Managers in the • Support employee commitment to shortand long-term goals. • Coach individuals and groups in appropriate skills and behaviors. • Model and foster self-esteem. • Show genuine concern and empathy for people. • Offer timely and acceptable feedback. Models of Organizational Behavior
Facilitators Roles for Managers in the System Model of OB (continue) • Influence people to learn continuously and share that learning with others. • Help individuals identify and confront issues in ethical ways. • Stimulate insights through interviews, questions, and suggestions. • Encourage people to feel comfortable with change and uncertainty. • Build cohesive, productive work teams Models of Organizational Behavior Employees embrace the goal of organizational effectiveness and recognize the mutuality of company-employee obligation. It creates a sense of sychological ownership for the organization and its product services. Models of Organizational Behavior Employees go beyond the selfdiscipline and reach a state of self-motivation. The highest-order needs (e. g. social, status, esteem, autonomy, and self-actualization) are met. Engender employees’ passion and commitment to organizational goals. Models of Organizational Behavior Evolving Usage Relation of Models to Human Needs Increasing Use of Some Models Contingent Use of All Models Managerial Flexibility Models of Organizational Behavior
Evolving Usage Manager/Organization use tends to evolve over time. the models There is no one permanently “best’ model. Primary challenge to management is to identify the model it is actually using and then assess its current effectiveness. Models of Organizational Behavior Relation of Models to Human Needs The five models are closely related to human needs. Each model is build upon accomplishments of the other. the Models of Organizational Behavior Increasing Use of Some Models The trend toward the supportive, collegial and system models will probably continue.
Only these newer models can offer the satisfaction of the employees needs for esteem, autonomy and selfactualization. Models of Organizational Behavior Contingent Use of All Models Though one model may be most used at any given time, some appropriate uses will remain for other models. The five models will continue to be used, but the more advanced models will have growing use as progress is made and employee expectations rise. Models of Organizational Behavior Managerial Flexibility Managers need to identify their current behavioral model and must keep it flexible and current.
Managers need to read, to reflect, to interact with others, and to be receptive to challenges to their thinking from their colleagues and employees. Models of Organizational Behavior Score between 81 – 100 points, you appear to have a solid capability for demonstrating facilitative skills. Score between 60 – 80 points, you should take a close look at the items with lower self-assessment scores and explore ways to improve those items. Score under 60 points, you should be aware that a weaker skill level regarding several items could be detrimental to your future success as a manager. Models of Organizational Behavior