Enduring Love Narrative Techniques Chapter 19 – The pre-warning Page 163 Joe uses a range of symbols in this chapter; one of the symbols used is colour. Colour is used to give the reader a clue of what will happen soon. This is shown when Joe says, ‘in memory, all the food they brought us first was red,’ the use of a colour to remember a part of Joe’s memory gives the reader the impression that the colour symbolises a feeling or emotion that Joe may have felt. ‘Red’ in this case could represent danger, blood, anger, threat or jeopardy, all words that are connected to the event that occurs in this chapter.
A similar symbol appears on page 172 where Colin Tapp had just been shot. There is an emphasis on colour of his shirt when Joe describes the gun shot, ‘the silenced bullet struck through his white shirt at his shoulder,’ the use of the description about the bullet and where it hit Tapp helps put emphasis on the colour and how it can relate to red. White can be related to innocence, peace and the idea of being harmless or pure, therefore when Tapp is shot, the innocence is lost.
This can relate to red because of Tapp’s blood and that fact that the shooting involves danger and threat. Also the men that shot Tapp were wearing black which contributes to the idea that colour plays a large part in this chapter. The colour black is significant as it could mean that they men were dark, powerful and it can be related to death and evil in contrast to white. Page 164 Joe starts to loose his connection with the reader making their relationship weaker and distancing them.
This happens because Joe makes use of multiple stories in this part of his narrative, he constantly switches back and forth from one story to the next, resulting in the uncertainty of the reader. This is shown when he says, ‘I would have liked to tell the story…fondly against his arm. ’ This passage includes Joe’s thoughts about a previous part of his life, the conversation that he was presently having and what was happening on the table behind him. The frequent switch from one story to another can make the reader confused, resulting in Joe loosing his connection with the reader.
The fact that Joe does notice everything happening in the restaurant gives the impression that he has a type of subconscious awareness of what is going on around him, this is shown when he says, ‘on the next table the girl was being helped through the menu by her father. ’ As Joe has included numerous activities happening around him, the reader is confused on what to focus on. Joe uses hindsight at random parts of the chapter again which can make the reader loose focus on what is currently happening in Joe’s narrative and making the reader and Joe loose their connection.
On page 167 Joe states, ‘I didn’t see him at the time, not until the very end’ and on page 165 ‘when I was next aware of her she was back in her seat. ’ This shows an obvious and constant use of hindsight which can make the reader confused on what Joe saw and thought at that moment. Overall the use of multiple stories, Joe’s subconscious awareness of everything around him and Joe’s use of hindsight can all contribute to the reader’s confusion and distance from Joe. Page 166 The reader questions Joe’s reliability when he states that he blamed some of his behaviour on the ‘champagne’.
As Joe has stated that he had champagne and it affected his behaviour, this could imply that some of his memories or thoughts on that day may have not actually occurred or may have been different. This makes the reader question Joe’s ability to recall events truthfully and the reader is unsure whether Joe is a reliable and trustworthy source. Also, the reader’s trust in Joe is affected by the questions he asks himself, one example is on page 167 where he says, ‘or were these details I observed later, in the chaos, or in the time after the chaos? This question leaves the reader wondering if they believe Clarissa instead of Joe. This may be because Clarissa believes that Joe has been affected by Parry and that he had lost his way of thought. Therefore the reader may not feel that they can trust what Joe says as he seems unreliable in this chapter as well as the fact that Parry may have affected Joe’s mind and way of thinking. Page 171 The use of language in this section helps the reader see Joe’s interpretation of the men that shot Colin Tapp.
To the reader, Joe makes a link between the men that shot Tapp and Parry. This is shown when Joe says, ‘both men wore black coats that gave them a priestly look. There was a ceremony in their stillness. ’ The use of ‘priestly’ and ‘ceremony’ relate to religion and Parry’s beliefs. Also, the use of colour as a symbol makes another link between the two men and Parry as the men represent power and evil which is what Joe sees in Parry. After this, Joe names the two men as ‘the intruders’.
This term also relates to Parry as Joe feels Parry has intruded into his life by stalking him and the use of Parry’s letters which are frequently focused on throughout Joe’s narrative. Therefore, we can see why Joe has narrated the two men in this way as he is showing the reader how he thinks they relate to Parry through their appearance and behaviour. From the reader’s perspective, we can see that Joe sees the two men or ‘intruders’ as a symbol or representation of Parry.
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