Informative Essay on Chapter

Emancipation Proclamation announcement made by president Lincoln during the Civil War; emancipated all black slaves in States still engaged in rebellion against Union; went into affect January 1, 1863. Fort Sumter – a fort located in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina; the location of the start of the Civil War. George B. McClellan – commander of the Army of the Potomac and general of the war. Gettysburg a battle of which was fought from July 1-3, 1863; Lee withdrew from this battle July 4th (the same day as the surrender of Vicksburg). Greenbacks – paper currency.
Homestead Act – allowed citizen (or prospective) to claim 1 60 acres and buy it or a small price after 5 years of living on it. Jefferson Davis – the “president” of confederacy; was unsuccessful; rarely provided any leadership. March to the Sea – sixty mile wide swath of desolation across Georgia; Sherman left Atlanta and destroyed towns and plantations through Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Morris Land Grant Act – transferred substantial public accuracy to state governments to sell and profits went to public education. Robert E. Lee – opposed secession; left US army to lead confederate forces.
Shiloh – Grant, with new troops, recovered and forced Beauregard to withdraw; union victory. Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson – confederate army leader; defeated 2 union armies by charging course suddenly and slipped away. Ulysses S. Grant – constant, unrelenting assault (military); willing to fight when others wouldn’t; presided over some of the worst carnage. US Sanitary Commission – organization of volunteers led by Dorothy Dig that embroiled large numbers of female nurses to serve in field hospitals. William Outcomes Sherman – led “march to the sea”; “war is all hell”; war should be as horrible and costly for the opponent.

Questions: 1 . (Chart is on notebook paper attached) 2. Out Carolina- Deck. 20, 1860 Mississippi- Jan. 9, 1861 Florida- Jan. 10, 1861 Alabama- Jan. 19, 1861 Georgia- Jan. 19, 1861 Louisiana- Jan. 26, 1861 Texas- Feb.. 1, 1861 Virginia- April 17, 1861 Arkansas- May 6, 1861 North Carolina- May 20, 1861 Tennessee- June 2, 1861 3. The Accredited Compromise included 6 amendments and 4 congressional resolutions to guarantee permanent slavery. He did this in order to avoid war. 4. Lincoln did what he did in order to not be the first party of the war to take action. He did it to also escape the situation they’d been trapped in for several months. . 6. The National Bank Act of 1 865 established a system of national banks of which eventually developed the banking system we have today. It was important because it encouraged a national currency. 7. From the beginning, it was expected to be a short and low funding war. Walt that being said, the initial (first) war funded by borrowing but eventually realized that it was much more, so they created the Revenue Act of 1862 which increased taxes drastically including federal income taxes which infuriated supporters Of the war. 8. The government raised the majority of it’s money by Revenue tax stamps. . The majority of the Northern nation was not supportive at all; riots occasionally occurred. They saw these laws to be an intrusion of privacy and a violation of one’s sovereignty. 10. One could avoid by buying their way out of being drafted, or even substitute themselves with another member of their household. 11. Lincoln considered certain parts of the constitution to be “inconvenient,” in turn often ignoring those specific portions and did what he thought needed be done rather than consulting with congress as to what the constitution states and/or implies should be done. 12.
The peace democrats ere a group of people of which believed the North pushed the South to secession. They also believed Lincoln was a tyrant and that the war was a national tragedy. This group was present in the mid-west section of the US including Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. 13. A. ) He justified the suspension by claiming it was in respect of those arrested. B. ) Everyone’ rights were affected as it limited citizens to have an opinion that wasn’t supporting the government. 14. Chief Justice Tangy issued this writ, or formal written order, requiring him to release an imprisoned Maryland secessionist leader. Lincoln swaggered this request. 5. The Confiscation Act declared that all slaves that were used for “insurrectionist” purposes would be considered freed. The second Confiscation Act declared to free the slaves of the persons aiding and us porting the insurrection (regardless of if the slaves were doing so) and also authorized the president to employ African Americans, including freed slaves, as soldiers. As a result, with the progression of the war, the North grew to be more accepting Of emancipation. By the end Of the Civil War, slavery had been abolished in two Union slave states and in three Confederate dates occupied by Union forces. 16.
The Emancipation Proclamation was the war power act Pres. Lincoln issued on Jan. 1, 1863. This act declared forever free slaves in all areas of the Confederacy aside from those already under Union control (Tennessee, western Virginia, and southern Louisiana). It also did no apply to border slave states. 17. Slaves were often taken from their designated plantations and transported to the front, escaping Northern lines, unable to be returned to their masters. Some slaves joined the Union army, while others stayed with troops to flee to free states. Antislavery impulse gained strength, regardless of the act’s inability to affect certain areas. 8. About 1 86,000 emancipated African Americans served as soldiers, sailors, and laborers for the Union forces. It was only the first few months of the war that African Americans were widely excluded. They were treated very poorly. Many died from disease due to working in unsanitary conditions for arduous hours. Black soldiers were paid a third less in comparison to white soldiers, as well. 19. Women were often put in nursing positions whether it’d been by choice or necessity. They also worked as retail sales clerks, office workers, and mill & factory hands.
Shallowness’ wives often became responsible for managing slave work forces; the wives Of more modest farmers plowed fields and harvested crops. These were all positions previously dominated by men. 20. Although there were several significant exceptions, the Federal government and the Confederate government were very similar (These exceptions included the acknowledgment of the sovereignty of the individual states, and the sanctioning of slavery [of which made abolition nearly impossible]). 21 . The region focused so intensely on producing cotton and other export crops.
The departure of so many white males severely diminished the region’s ability to maintain food production. Copious amounts of doctors were conscripted to serve the needs of the military, of which left many communities without any medical care. In effect, the South experienced shortages of everything. Because of this, along with inflation, there was a major instability in Southern society. Resistance to conscription, food impressments, and taxation increased throughout the Confederacy, as well as hoarding and black-market monomer. 22. While raising their armies, many more white Southerners were exempted from military service than Northerners.
Conscription was successful for a period of time. Although, after 1862, conscription began to produce fewer men. In early 1864, the government experienced a shortage of manpower. At this time, situations called for desperate measures; the Confederate congress began drafting men as young as 1 7 and as old as 50. 23. The North’s economy was strengthened, thus increasing industry and railroad development. The South’s was weakened because of millions of Lars worth of property being destroyed and the region’s young male population having depleted. 24.
The production of weapons was more efficient due to technological advances. Weapons were also stronger and more powerful. 25. A. ) The first battle occurred on July 21, 1861. This battle nearly succeeded in dispersing the Confederate forces, but was unable due to the Southerners taking action in stopping a last strong Union assault and performing a savage counterattack. As a result, the Confederates retreated in an unrecognized manner. When disorganized, as the Union forces were by feat with a short of supplies and transportation, the Confederates did not pursue.
Because of this battle, the Union’s morale and the president’s confidence in his officers were destroyed. B. ) The battle of Animate began on September 17. Mescaline’s 87,000-man army attacked Lee’s force of 50,000. 6,000 soldiers died, and 1 7,000 sustained injuries. At the end of the day, as the Confederate line seemed ready to break, the last of Jackson’s troops arrived to reinforce it. McClellan then allowed Lee to retreat to Virginia. This battle only lasted one day. C. ) There were complications for the Union forces n the East, but important victories occurred in the West.
Grant moved his his and supplies to an area south of the city. He then attacked Vicksburg from the rear. Vicksburg surrendered 6 weeks later on July 4, due to the fact that residents were starving as a result of a prolonged siege. D. ) Lee attacked Mead’s army once they were perched on the hills south of the town. Lee’s forces Were outnumbered 75,000 to 90,000 and his assault On the Union forces on Cemetery Ridge failed. The next day he ordered a second, larger effort. 1 5,000 Confederates advanced nearly a mile while being swept by Union fire.

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