They are characteristics that predict later initiation of drug use.
They are variables that are statistically related to some other variables, such as drug use.
They are substances that cause one to escalate to more deviant forms of drug use.
They are those forms of drug use that are not considered either normal or acceptable by the society at large.
Deviant drug use
having friends who use marijuana or other substances.
being heavily involved in extracurricular activities.
having lots of money.
believing that your parents are a source of social support.
The sample sizes used for research studies are too small.
This technique can be used only on students who are in classrooms.
The researchers who conduct these studies tend to be biased.
The results do not reflect trends in drug use over time due to fluctuating tendencies to overreport or underreport drug use.
Deviant drug use
for about the past 100 years.
only since the 1960s.
for thousands of years.
only in Europe and North America.
having high self-esteem
being well-off financially
having more involvement with religion
having lots of friends
all psychoactive drugs should be banned.
most people are unable to control their own drug use.
every drug has an opposite drug that can counteract it.
drugs, per se, are not good or bad.
Large-scale survey studies of substance use in the general population have strong correlations with most traditional personality traits.
Correlational studies of long-term substance use among young adults have shown a strong link between poor academic performances and substance use.
Various ways of measuring a factor called impulsivity can be correlated with rates of substance use in the general population.
Personality factors play a big role in whether someone decides to try alcohol or marijuana but a small role in whether that use develops into a serious problem.
information about which drugs are associated with the greatest number of ER visits.
clear measures of the toxicity of individual drugs.
data regarding problems associated with alcohol-in-combination.
general information about trends in drug-related ER visits.
between 60 and 80
between 10 and 30
substance use disorders.
drug-associated bipolar disorder.
High blood pressure from smoking
A motivational syndrome
Paranoia from methamphetamine use
Respiratory arrest from an alcohol overdose
It indicates that prescription drugs are important contributors to overall drug toxicity figures.
It implies that psychological dependence is more important than physical dependence in explaining repeated drug use.
It points out the scientific value of the concept of reinforcement for understanding physical dependence.
It proves that using one of the gateway substances causes one to escalate to more deviant forms of drug use.
is a system of free public-service announcements.
is a voluntary organization for teachers and police officers.
monitors drug-related medical emergencies.
monitors arrest rates for various drug-law violations.
Syringe exchange programs
Sexual abstinence education
Increased Narcotics Anonymous attendance
Decreased use of hormonal contraceptives
required pharmacists and physicians to register and pay a tax to dispense certain drugs.
made it a crime to prescribe heroin to dependent users.
regulated all over-the-counter medicines.
regulated peyote and marijuana.
Investigational new drugs
Possession for personal use of all drugs is decriminalized.
Possession for personal use of all drugs will receive stiffer penalties.
Possession for personal use of marijuana is decriminalized.
Possession for personal use of marijuana will receive stiffer penalties.
the DAWN report.
The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act
The Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
The Pure Food and Drugs Act
a pricing comparison with competing drugs.
proof that no adverse reactions will occur.
three phases of clinical testing, with each phase involving more people.
personal testimony from patients who have tried the drug.
more than 50
It required advertisements for prescription drugs (mostly in medical journals) to contain a summary of information about adverse reactions to the drug.
It included the requirement that companies seek approval of any testing to be done with humans before clinical trials are conducted.
It included the guidelines for annual postmarketing reporting by the companies of adverse reactions to some medications.
It tightened the procedures whereby drug company salespeople could provide free samples to physicians.
only if there is evidence that the individual student has used drugs.
only with the parents’ permission.
only after the student has been in a treatment program.
if they are involved in extracurricular activities.
the parasympathetic branch.
acetylcholine neurons in the parasympathetic branch.
dopamine neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway.
norepinephrine neurons in the locus ceruleus.
the blood-brain barrier.
autonomic nervous system.
acting on the blood-brain barrier.
altering hormone levels.
acting directly on the receptors.
increasing blood pressure.
The area postrema
The choroid plexus
The posterolateral sulcus
The tuberculum cinereum
blood sugar level.
the type of receptor.
the rate of synthesis.
drug disposition tolerance.
an active metabolite.
effects on the stomach.
the magnitude of the effect it produces.
its dependence potential.
whether it has a detectable odor.
the amount required to produce an effect.
is fully developed in humans when they are born.
is designed to allow all drug compounds into the brain.
cannot be penetrated, even with trauma to the brain.
prevents many drugs from entering the brain.