This chapter introduces the core theories of employee motivation. It begins by introducing employee engagement, an increasingly popular concept associated with motivation. This definition relates to the four cornerstones of individual behavior and performance identified in the MARS model which was discussed on chapter 2. MARS means Motivation, Ability, Role Perceptions, and Situational Factors. Next, this chapter distinguish between drives and needs wherein Eve learned how needs are shaped through the individual’s self-concept and other personal factors.
On this topic, needs-goal-directed ores that people experience are shaped by the individual’s self-concept (including personality and values), social norms, and past bioscience. There are 3 theories that focus on drives and needs. First is the Mascots need hierarchy. This theory focuses into a hierarchy of five levels and states that the lowest needs are initially most important but higher needs become more important as the lower ones are satisfied.
Next, hinterland’s learned needs theory. This theory argues that needs can be strengthened through learning. The three needs studied in this respect have been need for achievement, deed for power, and need for affiliation. And lastly, four-drive Theory. Four- drive theory states that everyone has four innate drives and this drives activate emotions that we regulate through a skill set that considers social norms, past experience, and personal values.
I’ve even learned the levels of performances which are the E-to-P expectancy and O-to-P expectancy which as discussed on expectancy theory. This chapter also talked about the key elements of goal setting and feedback. And on the last part is about the organizational justice, including the dimensions and dynamics of equity theory and procedural justice. On this one, I’ve learned that companies need to consider not only equity of the distribution of resources but also fairness in the process of making resource allocation decisions.
CHAPTER 6 This chapter talks about money and other financial rewards which are a fundamental part Of the employment relationship, but their value and meaning vary from one person to the next. Organizations reward employees for their membership and seniority, job status, competencies, and performance. Competency-based rewards are becoming increasingly popular because they improve workforce flexibility and are consistent with the emerging idea of employability. However, they tend to be subjectively measured and can result in higher costs as employees spend more time learning new skills.
It also tackled about the awards and bonuses, commissions, and other individual performance-?based rewards that have existed for centuries and are widely used. Many companies are shifting to team-based rewards such as shanghaiing plans and to organizational rewards such as employee stock ownership plans (Seeps), stock options, profit sharing, and balanced scorecards. Other thing I’ve learned is about the Job specialization which subdivided work into separate jobs for different people.
This increases work efficiency because employees master the task quickly. However, , job specialization may reduce work motivation, create mental and physical health problems, lower product or service quality, and increase costs through discontentment, absenteeism, and turnover. Another one is about empowerment. Empowerment is a psychological concept represented by four dimensions: self-determination, meaning, competence, and impact regarding the individual’s role in the organization. Last on is about self-leadership.
Self- leadership is the process of influencing oneself to establish the self-direction ND self-motivation needed to perform a task. This includes personal goal setting, constructive thought patterns, designing natural rewards, self- monitoring, and self-reinforcement. Constructive thought patterns include self-talk and mental imagery. Self-talk refers to any situation in which a person talks to himself or herself about his or her own thoughts or actions while mental imagery involves mentally practicing a task and imagining successfully performing it beforehand.
The title of this chapter is Team dynamics so literally it talks about teams, their characteristics, benefits and limitations and others. Teams are groups of two or more people who interact and influence each other, are mutually accountable for achieving common goals associated with organizational objectives, and perceive themselves as a social entity within an organization. All teams are groups, because they consist of people with a unifying relationship and not all groups are teams, because some groups do not exist to serve organizational objectives.
I’ve discovered for reasons why people join informal groups. First, people have an innate drive to bond, second is that group membership is an inherent ingredient in a person’s self-concept. Third, mom personal goals are accomplished better in groups, and lastly, individuals are comforted in stressful situations by the mere presence of other people. Teams have become popular because they tend to make better decisions, support the organizational learning process, and provide superior customer service.
The model of team effectiveness considers the team and organizational environment, team design, and team processes. Three team design elements are task characteristics, team size, and team composition. Teams develop through the stages of forming, storming, morning, performing, and eventually adjourning. Within these stages are two distinct team development processes: developing team identity and developing team competence. Team development can be accelerated through team building-?any formal activity intended to improve the development and functioning of a work team.
Teams develop norms to regulate and guide member behavior. These norms may be influenced by initial experiences, critical events, and the values and experiences that team members bring to the group. This chapter discussed about what is communication and explained why it is important in an organization. Communication is the process by which information is transmitted and understood between two or more people. Communication supports work coordination, organizational learning, decision making, and employee wellbeing.
Communication is the vehicle through which people clarify their expectations and coordinate work, which allows them to achieve organizational objectives more efficiently and effectively. Chester Bernard, a telecommunications CEO and a respected pioneer in organizational behavior theory, stated this point back in 1938: “An organization is born when there are individuals who are able to communicate. Communication also aids employee well-being. Information enunciated from co-workers helps employees manage their work environment, telling them, for instance, how to complete work procedures correctly or handle difficult customers.
Communicating with others is an important means through which individuals validate their self-worth and maintain their social identity. This occurs even in the virtual world of Second Life. “In Second Life we gather and mingle before the meeting, and when it finishes, some people stop and talk again,” explains Ian Hughes, an IBM employee who attends the virtual meetings as a pudgy avatar with spiky green hair Some companies try to encourage communication through aerospace design, as well as through Web-based sites.