World Health Organization defined low birth weight as a per centum of unrecorded Born babies that weigh less than 2500 g, for a given clip period. Infant mortality addition particular to deliver weight if they weigh less than 2500 gms ( 1 ) . Low birth weight is caused by short gestational age or intrauterine growing deceleration or a combination of both. Low birth weight is an of import cause for infant mortality in United Kingdom ( 2 ) and can impact baby ‘s wellness in approaching old ages. Birth weight is associated with perinatal mortality and morbidity every bit good as with diseases like type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in maturity ( 3 ) . New born babes with birth weight of less than 2500g history for 7 % of all unrecorded births in developed states ( 4 ) . Low birth weight varies widely in adult females of different socio-economic position e.g.in early 1890ss, in England and Wales the per centum of low birth weight births was 8.2 % in unskilled societal category V versus 5.4 % in professional societal category I based on the business of the male parent ( 4 ) .
Smoke is the 1 of the major modifiable hazard factor lending to low birth weight of new born babes. Babies born to female parents, who smoke, weigh on mean 200g less than babes born to female parents, who does non smoke. Harmonizing to Messecar et al the tobacco users have twice the incidence of low birth weight as compared to non-smokers ( 7 ) .Socio-economic position strongly affects smoking surcease in gestation. Womans with lower income, instruction and unemployed are far more likely to go on smoking than adult females from higher socioeconomic position groups ( 8 ) . Smoking surcease reduces the prevalence of low birth weight and increase birth weight among pregnant adult females who stop smoke as a consequence of successful intercession ( 9 ) .
We conducted a prospective observational survey, in which we recruited pregnant adult females showing to the labour ward of local District General Hospital in active labors in May 2004.We included adult females who were willing to take part with singleton gestation dated by ultrasound. Mean age of participants were 31.33 ( old ages ) .Women who were non in labor, non willing to take part, with learning disablements, terminal unwellness and with Intrauterine deceases or still births at the clip of presentation were excluded.
We gave eligible adult females the elaborate information cusps sing our survey and a trained wellness attention professional took consent from willing female parents. We used structured signifier to roll up the information and used instance notes of voluntaries to roll up this information. We collected informations on maternal age ( uninterrupted variable ) , gestational age ( uninterrupted variable ) , on smoke position ( categorical variable ) , BMI ( uninterrupted variable ) and gender of new born ( categorical variable ) . General demographic information was besides collected. We used standard mensurating graduated table in labour ward to enter the birth weight ( uninterrupted dependant variable ) of the new Born and used units of gms for weight measuring. Data was analysed with the aid of statistician based at the section of Basic Health Sciences University of Leicester. We used SPSS16 package bundle to analyze the information.
Over a period of 30 yearss we invited all eligible adult females to take part in our survey from the labour ward of local District General infirmary, merely 150 volunteered to take part. In our informations one individual has all losing values except birth weight, there were two other outliers in birth weight values, these were non justifiable i.e. birth weight of 20g and 1265g.We did informations cleansing by canceling these three values. Mean birth weight was 3390 gms runing from 2300g to 4520g with standard divergence of 487.37.Womens age scope was from 19years to 43 old ages with average age of 31 old ages. Gestational age among participants ranged from 24weeks to 43 hebdomads with mean of 39 and standard divergence of 2.80.Out of 149 adult females 23 were tobacco users and 126 did non smoke during gestation. Majority of tobacco users in our survey were multiparous i.e. 73.9 % . Approximately 55 % primiparous adult females and 45 % multiparous adult females did non smoke during gestation. Among the new born babies 76 were males and 73 were females.
Birth weight is a dependent variable and it is usually distributed. Parity of female parent is one of the forecasters and is besides usually distributed. Pearson coefficient trial was important ( important 2 tailed P value=0.01 ) demoing significance correlativity between two variables. We used parametric trial i.e. independent T trial and found that average birth weight of new born in primiparous ( n=74 ) was 3288g which was 205g ( 95 % CI-49.4-361.1 ) less than the average birth weight ( 3493 ) of new Borns of multiparous adult females ( n=73 ) .The Levine ‘s Test is non important ( p=0.92 ) , the two discrepancies i.e. primiparity and multiparty are non significantly different and we can presume that the discrepancies are about equal. In our T trial the value of T is 2.63.We have 145 grades of freedom and 2 tailed significance= 0.10 which is more than.005 rejecting our void hypothesis.
We checked the relationship between gestational age and birth weight and found this to be linear.We used spearman ‘s trial to see this relationship and found this to be important ( p value 2 tailed =0.01 ) . Birth weight is non dependent on gender of babe ( p value- 0.028 with Mann Whitney trial ) .The interaction between para and smoke to impact the birth weight is non important ( p=0.858, F=0.32 ) and is no more than would be expected by opportunity. Test for difference in average birth weight by gestational age is important ( p=0.00 ) .Test for difference in average birth weight by Body mass index ( p=0.76 ) , smoking ( p=0.89 ) is non important. Dependent variable is birth weight which is usually distributed.
This is prospective survey look intoing the association of babies birth weight with para of their female parents. In our survey consequences Infants birth weight ranged from 2300grams to 4520grams. Harmonizing to WHO any infant born with a weight of less than 2500 gms is considered to be of low birth weight.There are many cause of low birth weight in babies including female parents body aggregate index, female parents age, nutritionary and smoke position ( 5 ) .We found that infant born to primiparous female parents weigh less so multiparous adult females. In subsequent gestations birth weight of babies increases our consequences are consist with finings of Macleod S et Al who found that birth weight additions from para 1 to para 3 but they besides found that birth weight dropped markedly in higher para group ( 13 ) ( 10 ) . We did non analyze the birth weight relationship as per figure of para as they did and we felt that this is one of failing of our survey. It is observed that maternal age and para of female parent affect birth weight by interfering with intrauterine growing, non by impacting gestational age ( 13 ) . Different theories were proposed in literature to explicate the intrauterine growing deceleration in female parents of different age and para groups. Many research workers reported that immature female parents in their teenage could non run into the demands of their growth fetus because of their ain turning organic structure demands and therefore taking to intrauterine growing deceleration ( 13 ) . Same sort of account can be given for multiparous female parents as nutritionary demands change over clip. There are other physiological factors which could play a portion in birth weight of babies in subsequent gestations like co-existing unwellness in female parents ( 14 ) , pregnancy attention etc and this was non looked in our survey.
Appropriate for gestational age is term used for Babies whose weight is appropriate for their gestational age, big for day of the months is the term used for babies heavier than their gestational age, and those smaller than expected are considered little for gestational age. We looked at the relationship of gestational age with infant birth weight. We found that this was important and it was straight relative i.e. with increasing gestational age, birth weight besides increased. This is another country for farther research to see any relationship between para and gestational age of babies. We besides noticed that at both extremes of maternal age i.e. in teenage female parents and in older adult females birth weight of babies tends to be on lower side. In our survey sample minority of adult females continued to smoke during gestation.Because of our little sample size we could non happen any association between smoke and birth weight, nevertheless it is good known fact that smoke is an of import cause of intrauterine growing deceleration and low birth weight of babies. We could non happen any association between gender of new born babies and their birth weight.
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