4 peer responses – due in 24 hours


Respond to Peers: Review your classmates’ posts, and respond to at least two of your peers. When responding to your classmates, please provide feedback on their examples of good and poor critical thinking skills. Discuss additional ways one can think more critically. Each participation post should be a minimum of 75 words.
Explain at least five elements of critical thinking that you found in the reading material.
1. Identification, which is described by Erstad (2018), figuring out what the issue is and what is contributing to the issue.
2. Information Seeking, finding facts that are able to back up the information with statistics reliable sources. This helps to solidify the data provided is legitimate and can be proven (Critical thinking skill. n.d.).
3. Identifying biases. Seeing the information from both sides. No matter what I believe, I need to provide the other side of this information, so I am not forcing my opinion on the matter, onto others.
4. Predicting. Being able to provide solutions and preparing for the possible outcomes. Planning based on the outcomes I believe might happen.
5. Curiosity. Having curiosity can help you dig deeper into the issue. “All it takes is a conscious effort to ask open-ended questions about the things you see in your everyday life, and you can then invest the time to follow up on these questions” (Erstad. 2018. Para. 23).
Search the Internet, media, or the Ashford University Library, and find an example in which good critical thinking skills are being demonstrated by the author or speaker. Summarize the content and explain why you think it demonstrates good critical thinking skills.
Religion, conflict, and resolution (ABA. n.d.), is the article I chose to represent good critical thinking skills. It identifies the issue of a person’s perspective of religion and the discussion of such causes conflict because not everyone views religion the same. It seeks information from sources who are considered knowledgeable in the field of conflict resolution. This article addresses the issue from both sides, digs deeper and finds their issues with religion most likely are personal views. They also suggest learning more about other religions, although you still may feel the same, you can become more versed in their religion so you can understand their point of view.
Search the Internet, media, or the Ashford University Library, and find an example in which the author or speaker lacks good critical thinking skills. Summarize the content and explain why you think it demonstrates the absence of good, critical thinking skills.
           I chose an article in The Washington Post written by Danielle Paquette. This article suggests that Islamic extremists are planting seeds of conflict. It provides a detailed account of conflict fueled by the representation of Christianity by Christian followers’ and how Islamic militants were killing them for wearing crosses around their necks. This article provides the side of the victims, although very impactful in this article, it does not give the rational of the militants from their side. I do not believe their side would have made any difference in this article because what they did was wrong. This article also does not provide suggestions on how to fix this issue, but it does address there is one that needs to be fixed. With as much information provided, I do not believe critical thinking was used in this article. It showed there was an issue, went into detail on the events, but never provided a solution or dug deeper to reveal maybe where this issue that Islamic people have with Christian followers. It was for mere understanding there are horrible events taking place and identifying their victims.
American Bar Association (ABA). (n.d.). Religion, conflict, and resolution. Retrieved from https://www.americanbar.org/groups/dispute_resolution/publications/dispute_resolution_magazine/2018/fall2018/religion-conflict-and-resolution/ (Links to an external site.)
Critical thinking skills (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.). (n.d.). http://www.umich.edu/~elements/probsolv/strategy/ctskills.htm
Erstad, W. (2018, January 22). 6 critical thinking skills you need to master now (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.). http://www.rasmussen.edu/student-life/blogs/main/critical-thinking-skills-you-need-to-master-now/ (Links to an external site.)
Paquette, D. (2019). Islamist militants are targeting Christians in Burkina Faso: ‘They are planting seeds of religious conflict’. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/africa/islamist-militants-are-targeting-christians-in-burkina-faso-they-are-planting-seeds-of-a-religious-conflict/2019/08/20/3d689bf8-b91c-11e9-aeb2-a101a1fb27a7_story.html (Links to an external site.)
Explain at least five elements of critical thinking that you found in the reading material:
1. Identification / Identify the issue and components that may influence it
2. Research / Find the source of information and evaluate (Critical thinking skill, n.d.).
3. Identify Biases / Review the information received objectively.  Learn to keep your personal biases to the side and do not allow them to cloud your decision.  
4. Inference / Collect as much information as possible prior to making a decision.  
5. Determining Relevance / Know your goals and establish a list of what is most important.  Write down the information received in order of importance to eliminate data that has no relevance on the decision.  
Search the Internet, media, or the Ashford University Library, and find an example in which good critical thinking skills are being demonstrated by the author or speaker. Summarize the content and explain why you think it demonstrates good critical thinking skills:
The article selected was “Accelerating Change, the Complexity of Problems, and the Quality of Our Thinking”.  If change continues to move faster, and if the changes that do occur become more complex, how are we to deal with the world (Paul, & Willsen, n.d.).  The article discusses that people need to examine why there is a problem rather than teaching just to solve the problem. Also, teach how the problem is connected to other problems. We must work differently, move away from quick fix plans and look to expand our perspectives for long term change. People should invest in life long learning, upgrading our skills around reasoning, reading, and listening to the arguments from others.  
Search the Internet, media, or the Ashford University Library, and find an example in which the author or speaker lacks good critical thinking skills. Summarize the content and explain why you think it demonstrates the absence of good, critical thinking skills: 
The article I choose was “Trump’s Base Has Become Too Delusional For the GOP’s Own Good”. The article discusses how the conservative movement has sought to keep its core voters confined to a carefully arranged media ecosystem. By creating this platform people are not allowing themselves the opportunity to make a decision based of gathering all the information from different platforms.  They are relying on a one sided program to given them information and believe everything that is being said.  The article discusses people believing that the 2020 election will be the same as 2016 and Trump is guaranteed to win. Media outlets aren’t actually interested in keeping people well-informed, they are following the guidance of their leader.  
Critical thinking skills (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.). (n.d.). http://www.umich.edu/~elements/probsolv/strategy/ctskills.htm (Links to an external site.)
Paul, R., & Willsen, J. (n.d.). Accelerating change, the complexity of problems, and the quality of our thinking. Santa Rosa, CA.  
Respond to at least two of your classmates’ initial posts throughout the week by noting how their perspective is the same or different than yours. Each of your responses should be at least 100 words long. Both your initial post and your responses should refer both to your own experience and to content from readings, media, or websites.
Tammy’s post:
My cultural self
Culture is a broad term that can and does define the facets of all things from regions, people, religions on macro scopes, and music, books, and foods on micro levels – to name a few. I define culture as a paradox of difference and similarity in living among groups. About people, culture is associated with distinct ethnic practices and customs as it includes beliefs, rituals, wardrobes, and celebrations that connect within the community and intersect with contiguous regions. Culture also includes educational achievement, career choices, domicile responsibilities to age and gender gearing toward life expectancies and merit, and of course, behaviors. For instance, how Asian cultures implement the honor of their people in intergenerational care, especially the elderly, a more vulnerable group contrasts with the Maquiladoras of Mexico or Kenyan mines where children and the elderly are subject to catastrophic labor. These are instances of different cultural and impoverishment levels, which offset developed and advanced economic regions such as the United States. Each culture may differ slightly or significantly, but most have ancient ties and artifacts to their region and the organizations that support them or governments that dictate them. The governing factors and agencies that lead and influence culture either aid or hinder the processes from standing primitively or advancing for any given reason – usually for wealth and quality of living standards.
The cultures I identify most as a person are generic (in my perception) as I consider them a commonality. I am white, female, a wife, a mother, and stepmother, a Christian, a humanitarian, a Social Services Worker, a student, and more. I do not define myself to conform to a specific culture as labels tend to limit self-fulfilling prophecies and potential. I wear many hats in my family and community in that; I act accordingly. Morals and ethics are my core to everything I say and do because it defines me. In short, my culture is a virtue, to be kind and mindful. No prejudice is justified in my mind. On a material or non-material level, I belief humility is better than greed or arrogance.
My cultural norms, as a child, in comparison to now or even a decade ago, do not align. My life events mold and reshape me. As an example, after my father left his Christian ministry, he turned towards secular occultic practices. As a child, this was scary – he was scary in this regard. To this day, I am hypersensitive to this culture. I accept those who choose this belief yet have firm boundaries to my faith. Subjection to inconsistent religions within my family allowed me to acknowledge the stereotypical approaches to unique and conventional spiritual, religious, and non-conforming belief systems. My mother’s stepfather was a southern minister of the Pentecostal faith. He was not blatantly racist; nevertheless, believed no race should mix. I choose to disagree respectfully once interracially married and a mother to biracial children – color does not define a person nor group. My family was highly conservative – the traditional nuclear family, so becoming a single mother presented challenges for how my family viewed and ostracized me.
Special circumstances are essential to consider in culture and how the pivotal moments affect trajectories. As the first person in my family to seek higher education, I broke a mold there also. I am also career-minded as opposed to the “SAHM” (stay-at-home Mom) type. In certain cultures, these choices constitute gruesome execution, such as in Sharia Law extremes. While my husband was a trainer, we hosted several foreign-born trainees into our home. Many frowned upon my “bold” and “fierce” ways for this and various reasons. Culture is diverse; mine is no exception to any rule.
My Cultural Self
In respect to my cultural self/who I am today, it has a lot to do with a variety of people in and out of my culture.  Who I am, and who I’ve become, has so much more to do with just me.  According to our text, “While we inherit our genes from our biological parents, we inherit so much more of who we are from our family, and by others in the society with whom we interact.”  (Khan, 2015, section 1.3, para. 1).  Take for instance my family, I am Puerto Rican both my parents are from Puerto Rico.  However, I was partially raised by my biological mom because she became ill when I was ten years old.  She was in and out of the hospital frequently so I was also raised by a minister couple when my mom passed away, I was 15 years old at the time.  Although the couple was also Hispanic, they were ministers, now I do not only have to juggle culture but religion as well.  Khan (2015) goes on to ask a loaded question.  “To what extent do you believe society and culture have influenced your behavior, decisions, and observations of the world around you?”   (Khan, 2015, section 1.3, para. 2).  I picked up many customs from my biological mom.  However, I have also picked up many customs from my “adoptive” family.  I believe that who I am today and what I learned is mainly because of the family I grew up with, their believes, their norms but mostly centered around religion more so than culture.
I currently work for an Asian company and I have had to adhere to their culture and norms.  The company began in California and they have adopted much of their culture to how they want their stores to operate (which makes sense).  However, they do not take into consideration that not everyone they hire is Asian.   Many of our holidays like New Year are not as important to them to observe because they celebrate their New Year’s different than ours.  Aside from their Lunar New Year, their most important holiday, they also celebrate the mid-autumn festival.  Farmers pray for protection and prosperity and families gather together to be reminded of the importance of family. (Hulsbosch, Bedford, & Chaiklin, 2009 p.23).  Although we also celebrate New year at different times, we all gather with our families and pray for protection and prosperity throughout the coming year.  I identify with my culture the most but with my Christian upbringing in the mix as well.  The major characteristics of my culture, externally are the food we eat.  We love our rice and beans, fried foods, and seasoning (a lot of it), and I cannot leave out music, music is life for us, music is capable of lightening up any mood.   Internally we are family-oriented and extremely close.  Looking from the outside in you may not think so but when we are all together you can see how close we are. 
As a child, I learned that family comes first, no matter what.  Family is family and nothing or no one should come between us.  As a family, we could fight but no one from the outside could bring trouble into our family.   When at the dinner table, the men in the family get served first because they are the head of the household.    For a long time, I thought all households were the same until I came in contact with other families that did not practice the same way I did.  Khan (2015) stated that “We tend to accept many aspects of our culture as “givens,” without reflecting on the uniqueness of our perspectives relative to others who do not share the same culture.  Sometimes people within the same culture tend to do things differently, it is all a matter of coming across them. 
One Stereotype connected to my culture, that I learned at an early age, was that many people believe that you have to look a certain way to be Puerto Rican.  As I mentioned before, when people look at me, they do not think of me as being Puerto Rican. When I speak, and people hear my accent, then they ask where are you from?  when I tell them, What I hear in return is, well you do not look like a typical Puerto Rican.   My question to them is, so what does a typical Puerto Rican look like?  Because I consider myself a typical Puerto Rican.  However, people judge me because of what they believe a “typical Puerto Rican should look like.   In one of our required resources; We all have biases.  So, what can we do about it?  Dushaw Hockett states that “bias is a preference for or prejudice against a person or a group of people.”  I believe that people need to stop looking at who they see and start looking beyond what they see before casting judgment on others.  
Hockett, D. (2017, September). We all have biases. So, what can we do about it? [Video file].
Retrieved from We all have implicit biases. So, what can we do about it? | Dushaw Hockett | TEDxMidAtlanticSalon (Links to an external site.) Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.)
Hulsbosch, M., Bedford, E., & Chaiklin, M. (Eds.). (2009). Asian material culture. Retrieved
from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.proxy-library.ashford.edu (Links to an external site.)
Kahn, A. (2015). The ecology of diversity: Examining individuals, societies, and cultures. San
Diego, CA. Bridgepoint Education.
Culture refer characteristics and knowledge of a specific group of people, including religion, social habits, language, music, and arts. The features of culture include common patterns of behavior and interaction understanding and cognitive concepts that are cultured through socialization. Culture can be considered in two ways, namely: Individualism and collectivism. In Individualism, the welfare of an instant family and autonomy of one is much more significant. On the other hand, in collectivism, the rights of a community are more important than those of an individual.
Question 2
Of the two types of culture, material and nonmaterial, I identify with the nonmaterial culture. The external and internal characteristic of culture include Learned behavior, and it is abstract meaning it occurs in the minds or conducts of members of the society, it is a pattern of learned behavior,it is the products of behavior, it consists of knowledge, Attitudes, and values, members of society share it, and it is super organic.
Question 3
Some of the cultural norms learned during childhood include: Be kind to the elderly, if you hit or bump into someone accidentally, always say sorry, when one is late or will be late for an appointment or will not show soon One should call to inform others. When a person is talking, one should not disturb. Instead, wait for them to finish. Finally, if a person sneezes close to you, say bless you. The stereotypes connected to the norms are: when you hit or bump someone accidentally, one should always say sorry to prevent hitting or bumping into someone accidentally; one does not say bless to a person who is sneezing possibility of even you sneezing is high. Finally, if one does not treat the old with respect, the same will happen to him or her on getting old.
Bloom, P. (2014, January). Can prejudice ever be a good thing? [Video file]. Retrieved fromhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KDBcoRLkut8 (Links to an external site.)
Tritch, C. (2015, July). Let’s talk diversity and inclusion [Video file]. Retrieved fromLet’s Talk Diversity and Inclusion | Courtney Tritch | TEDxFortWayne (Links to an external site.)Let’s Talk Diversity and Inclusion | Courtney Tritch | TEDxFortWayne
Hockett, D. (2017, September). We all have biases. So what can we do about it? [Video file]. Retrieved from We all have implicit biases. So what can we do about it? | Dushaw Hockett | TEDxMidAtlanticSalon (Links to an external site.)We all have implicit biases. So what can we do about it? | Dushaw Hockett | TEDxMidAtlanticSalon

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